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Broghammerus reticulatus (SCHNEIDER, 1801)

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Higher TaxaPythonidae, Henophidia, Pythonoidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesBroghammerus reticulatus reticulatus (SCHNEIDER 1801)
Broghammerus reticulatus saputrai (AULIYA et al. 2002)
Broghammerus reticulatus jampeanus (AULIYA et al. 2002) 
Common NamesE: Reticulated Python
G: Netzpython 
SynonymBoa reticulata SCHNEIDER 1801
Boa rhombeata SCHNEIDER 1801
Boa Phrygia SHAW 1802
Coluber Javanicus SHAW 1802
Python Schneideri MERREM 1820
Python reticulatus — FITZINGER 1826
Python schneiderii — CUVIER 1831: 96
Python reticulatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 426
Python reticulatus — BOULENGER 1893: 85
Python reticulatus — SMITH 1943: 109
Python reticulatus — HENDRICKSON 1966: 67
Morelia reticulatus — WELCH 1988
Python reticulatus — KLUGE 1993
Python reticulatus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 429
Python reticulatus — COX et al. 1998: 14
Python reticulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 179
Broghammerus reticulatus — HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus dalegibbonsi HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus euanedwardsi HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus haydnmacphiei HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus neilsonnemani HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus patrickcouperi HOSER 2004
Broghammerus reticulatus stuartbigmorei HOSER 2004 (nom. dub.)
Broghammerus reticulatus — RAWLINGS et al. 2008

Broghammerus reticulatus jampeanus (AULIYA et al. 2002)
Python reticulatus jampeanus — DE LANG & VOGEL 2005
Broghammerus reticulatus jampeanus — RAWLINGS et al. 2008 (by implication)
Python reticulatus jampeanus — KOCH 2011
Python reticulatus jampeanus — WIRTH & GEIGER 2012

Broghammerus reticulatus saputrai (AULIYA et al. 2002)
Python reticulatus saputrai — DE LANG & VOGEL 2005
Broghammerus reticulatus saputrai — RAWLINGS et al. 2008 (by implication)
Python reticulatus saputrai — KOCH 2011 
DistributionIndonesia (Ambon, Anambas Islands, Babi, Bacan = Batjan, Bali ?, Banda Besar, Bangka, Bankak, Belitung, Boano, Borneo, Buru, Butung, Enggano, Flores, Halmahera, Haruku, Java, Kalimantan, Krakatau, Lang, Lombok, Mentawai Archipelago, Natuna Archipelago, Nias, Obira, Riau Archipelago, Saparua, Seram; Simeulue, Sula Archipelago, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Tanimbar, Ternate, Timor, Verlate, We); Timor-Leste,
Bangladesh [Khan, 1988; Das, 1994];
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India (Nicobar Islands);
Laos; Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia, Pulau Tioman);
W Malaysia (fide Grandison 1977), Myanmar (Burma);
Philippine Islands (Basilan, Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan: Calamian Islands, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Tawi-Tawi, Sulu Archipelago, Itbayat); Singapore, Thailand; Vietnam.

saputrai: Selayar (= Salayar) Island [6.10°S; 120.50°E], south of SW Sulawesi in the Flores Sea (Fig. 1) and SW Sulawesi; Type locality: Selayar Island, Indonesia

jampeanus: With certainty only known from Tanahjampea (7°4S; 120°41E); possibly also on some small neighboring islands, Sulawesi (DE LANG & VOGEL 2006). Type locality: Tanahjampea Island, Indonesia.

Type locality: unknown (fide KLUGE 1993)
Type locality: Rengit, West Malaysia [fide Auliya et al. 2002] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesNeotype: ZFMK 32378 [reticulatus]
Holotype: ZFMK 73473 [saputrai]
Holotype: ZFMK 73475 [jampeanus] 
CommentSynonymy partly after SCHLEIP & O’SHEA 2010.

Conservation: This species is commercially exploited for the skin trade. From Im 2000 to 2007 Malaysia and Indonesia exported 1,246,903 and 1,241,076 wild pythons, respectively, just for the fashion industry! [M. Auliya, pers. comm.].

Phylogenetics: Python reticulatus and Python timoriensis are paraphyletic with respect to other Python species.

Type species: Boa reticulata SCHNEIDER 1801 is the type species of the genus Broghammerus HOSER 2004.

Size: One of the largest snake species; one specimen reached 10 m (FLINDT 2002), one in the zoo of Pittsburgh died at 9.15 m (BARONE 2004). Reports about a record-size specimen from Java in 2003 turned out to be exaggerated: instead of 14 m the snake was less than 7 m in length. Reptile dealers have reported dwarf forms from the Flores Sea islands of Selayar, Kayuadi and Tanahjampea which they sometimes call “Python reticulatus kayuadi” (Patrick Prevost, pers. comm.). However, reticulated pythons have been reported to prey on humans (Williams 2012).

Diagnosis of genus (from McDowell, 1975 and Kluge, 1993): A genus of pythonine snakes, of large to gigantic size (adult total length reportedly to 10 m). Differentiated from Python (s.s.) by having the supralabial thermoreceptive pits less well defined than the infralabial pits (converse arrangement in Python); by infralabial pits set in a longitudinal groove defined ventrally by a longitudinal fold; colour pattern of the suborbital supralabial region similar to the rest of the supralabials, compared with Python, in which there is a dark suborbital patch; elongate medial anterior process of the ectopterygoid, which extends much further anteriorly than the lateral anterior process, compared with subequal processes in Python (excluding P. curtus); and by hemipenial morphology (McDowell et al., 1975); not known for timoriensis). Otherwise most similar to Morelia and Liasis, from which it can be differentiated (along with species of Python) by having the suborbital portion of the maxilla without any lateral flare or projection; the mandibular foramen of the compound bone lying below the posterior end of the dentary tooth row, rather than fully posterior to it; a large medially divided frontal; high midbody scale count (54 or more).

P. reticulatus has been documented killing tigers, panthers and crocodiles (BARONE 2006). 
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