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Brookesia confidens GLAW, KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & VENCES, 2012

IUCN Red List - Brookesia confidens - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae (Brookesiinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBrookesia confidens GLAW, KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & VENCES 2012 
DistributionN Madagascar (Antsiranana)

Type locality: trail to the ‘‘Petit Tsingy and Grotte des Chauves-Souries’’, 12°57’25’’S, 49°07’06’’E, 90 m elevation, Ankarana National Park, Antsiranana Province, northern Madagascar. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 2150/2007 (FGZC 1196), adult male (hemipenes incompletely everted), collected on 1 March 2007 by P. Bora, H. Enting, F. Glaw, A. Knoll, and J. Köhler. 
CommentDiagnosis.— A member of the Brookesia minima group based on small body size (SVL,23 mm) and molecular phylogenetic relationships. Brookesia confidens is distinguished from other members of the group as follows: from B. dentata by probably smaller adult body size (no measurements of male B. dentata available), and absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence); from B. exarmata by the absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence); from B. karchei by a smaller adult body size (female SVL 20.6–22.6 mm vs. 30.7 mm; no measurements of clearly identified males available for B. karchei), and absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence); from B. minima by a very narrow hemipenis (vs. balloon-like); from B. peyrierasi by generally smaller adult body size(male SVL 18.3– 20.1 mm vs. 19.7–22.4 mm), the absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence), absence of a supraocular cone (vs. presence), and very narrow ornamentless hemipenis (vs. massive, bilobed hemipenis with four spines per lobe); from B. ramanantsoai by a smaller adult body size (male SVL 18.3–20.1 mm vs. 21.7 mm), absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence), absence of a supraocular cone (vs. presence in some specimens), and hemipenis very narrow (vs. balloon-like); from B. tuberculata by the absence of a supranasal cone (vs. presence), absence of a supraocular cone (vs. presence), and hemipenis very narrow with pustules on apex (vs. wider, with crown-like apical structure). The new species is most similar to B. tristis but differs from this species by indistinct and short parasagittal crests (vs. distinct) and by 13 dorsolateral pointed tubercles (vs. 11), and ornamentless apical region of hemipenis (vs. spine-like papillae on apex). For a distinction from B. desperata and B. micra, described below, see the diagnoses of these species. Referencing a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, B. confidens shows an uncorrected pairwise divergence of 6.7% to its sister species B. tuberculata, and divergences .9% to all other species of the B. minima group. When stressed, individuals can quickly change colour and display a broad pale vertebral stripe contrasting with the darker flanks. 
EtymologyEtymology.— The species epithet is an adjective derived from the Latin ‘‘confidens’’ meaning ‘‘confident’’, ‘‘trusting’’. The known range of the species is supposedly a well protected nature reserve with apparently limited habitat destruction. Furthermore, this area might benefit from natural protection by the tsingy limestone formations which are difficult to access, thus giving hope for the species’ survival. 
References
  • Glaw F, Köhler J, Townsend TM, Vences M 2012. Rivaling the World’s Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2012. Die kleinsten Reptilien der Welt - neu entdeckte Zwergchamäleons aus Madagaskar. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 4-6 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2013. Liste der im Jahr 2012 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (3): 52-67 - get paper here
 
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