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Bungarus candidus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Bungarus candidus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Blue Krait
G: Blauer Krait 
SynonymColuber candidus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Bungarus candidus — CANTOR 1847
Bungarus semifasciatus BOIE 1827
Aspidoclonion semifasciatum — WAGLER 1828
Bungarus candidus var. semifasciata — WERNER 1900
Bungarus javanicus KOPSTEIN 1932 (fide SLOWINSKI 1994)
Bungarus candidus — SMITH 1943: 416
Bungarus candidus — WELCH 1994: 37
Bungarus javanicus — WELCH 1994: 39
Bungarus javanicus — KUCH 1996
Bungarus candidus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 416
Bungarus candidus — COX et al. 1998: 30
Bungarus candidus — SANG et al. 2009
Bungarus candidus — LIVIGNI 2013: 292
Bungarus candidus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 128 
DistributionCambodia,
Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi)
Malaysia (Malaya);
Singapore; Thailand, Vietnam

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NRM (was ZIUS 89)
Holotype: RMNH [javanicus] 
CommentB. candidus can be easily confused with juvenile Lycodon subcinctus or with L. stormi, which have alternating black and white bands too. Bungarus javanicus appears to be a melanistic form of Bungarus candidus (Slowinski 1994, Kuch & Mebs 2007).

Venomous!

DNA barcodes suggested multiple species within this species (Laopichienpong et al. 2016).

The latest record of this species from Sulawesi is from MEYER 1887. DE LANG & VOGEL (2005) thus consider this species as doubtful for this island. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • Geissler, Peter, Truong Quang Nguyen, Nikolay A. Poyarkov & Wolfgang Böhme 2011. New records of snakes from Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai and Lam Dong provinces, southern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 9-16 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Thy Neang, Thou Chav, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Jamie R. Oaks, Jeremy Holden, Jesse L. Grismer, Thomas R. Szutz and Timothy M. Youmans 2008. Additional amphibians and reptiles from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Northwestern Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, with comments on their taxonomy and the discovery of three new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56 (1): 161-175 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Grossmann, W. & Schäfer, C. 2000. Eine Blindwühle der Gattung lchthyophis FITZlNGER, 1826 als Beute des Malayen-Kraits Bungarus candidus (LlNNAEUS, 1758). Sauria 22 (3): 45-46
  • Iskandar, Djoko T. and Mumpuni 2002. The herpetological type specimens in the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense Collection. Hamadryad 27 (1):123-135 - get paper here
  • Jestrzemski, Daniel 2016. Die Schlangenfauna an einem zentralvietnamesischen Waldbach Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (4): 56-64 - get paper here
  • Jestrzemski, Daniel; Stefan Schütz, Truong Quang Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler 2013. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in Chu Mom Ray National Park, Vietnam, with implications for herpetofaunal conservation. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 2 (2): 88–110 - get paper here
  • Karns, D.R.; Murphy, J.C.; Voris, H.K. & Suddeth, J.S. 2005. Comparison of Semi-aquatic Snake Communities Associated with the Khorat Basin, Thailand. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 5(2): 73-90
  • Kopstein, F. 1936. Herpetologische notizen XV. Ueber Bungarus javanicus Kopst. Treubia 15 (3):265-266 - get paper here
  • Kopstein,F. 1932. Bungarus javanicus, eine neue Giftschlange von Java. Treubia 14: 73-89 - get paper here
  • Kopstein,F. 1936. Über Bungarus javanicus Kopst. Treubia 15: 265-266 - get paper here
  • Kuch, U. 1996. Erfolgreiche Terrarienhaltung eines Java-Kraits, Bungarus javanicus KOPSTEIN 1932. Elaphe 4 (2): 10-12
  • Kuch, U. 2001. Notes on the diet of the Malayan Krait, Bungarus candidus (LINNAEUS 1758). Herpetological Bulletin (75): 10-14 - get paper here
  • Kuch, U. & W. Schneyder 1991. Erfahrungen bei der Terrarienhaltung von vier Arten nahrungs - spezialisierter Giftnattern der Gattung Bungarus Daudin, 1803, Teil 1 - Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, 1758). Sauria 13 (4): 7-14 - get paper here
  • KUCH, ULRICH & DIETRICH MEBS 2007. The identity of the Javan Krait, Bungarus javanicus Kopstein, 1932 (Squamata: Elapidae): evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence analyses and morphology. Zootaxa 1426: 1-26 - get paper here
  • Kuch, Ulrich and Frank Tillack 2004. Record of the Malayan krait, Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, 1758), from Nias Island, Indonesia. Herpetozoa 16 (3/4):173-174 - get paper here
  • Lang, R. de & G. Vogel 2005. The snakes of Sulawesi. A field guide to the land snakes of Sulawesi with identification keys. Frankfurter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 25, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 312 pp.
  • Laopichienpong, Nararat et al. 2016. Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand Gene - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • LiVigni, F. (ed.) 2013. A Life for Reptiles and Amphibians, Volume 1. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 495 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • ONN, CHAN KIN; L. LEE. GRISMER, DIONYSIUS S. SHARMA, DAICUS BELABUT, and NORHAYATI AHMA 2009. New herpetofaunal records for Perlis State Park and adjacent areas. Malayan Nature Journal 61 (4): 255 - 262
  • Roemer, K. & Mahyar-Roemer, M. 2006. Haltung, Nachzucht und Toxin des Indischen Kraits, Bungarus caeruleus (SCHNEIDER 1801). Elaphe 14 (1): 26-32
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Siow, Holly & Alex Figueroa 2016. Malayan Krait Bungarus candidus preying on skink on Pulau Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia SEAVR 2016: 49-50 - get paper here
  • Slowinski J B. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 28 (4): 440-446 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1914. Occurence of Krait (Bungarus candidus) and the small-spotted coral snake (Calliophis maculiceps) in Siam; a new colour variety of the latter. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 1: 123-125.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stuart, B.; Sok, K. & Neang, T. 2006. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from hilly Eastern Cambodia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 129-155 - get paper here
  • Sworder, G.H. 1933. Notes on some reptiles from the Malay Peninsula. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 8: 101-105
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Tillack, F. & W. Grossmann 1998. Erstnachweis eines schwarzen Kraits (Gattung Bungarus Daudin, 1803) auf Bali, Indonesien (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae). Sauria 20 (3): 11-14 - get paper here
  • Voris, H.K. 2006. Assessment of Biodiversity among Southeast Asian Amphibians and Reptiles. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 6(1): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1905. Notes on Snakes collected in Cannanore from 5th November 1903 to 5th August 1904. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 292 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part I. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 51-72 [correction on p. 995] - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1907. Notes on Snakes collected in Fyzabad. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 101-129 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1908. A popular treatise of the common Indian snakes. Part VIII. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 711-735 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • ZIEGLER, THOMAS; RALF HENDRIX, VU NGOC THANH, MARTINA VOGT, BERNHARD FORSTER & DANG NGOC KIEN 2007. The diversity of a snake community in a karst forest ecosystem in the central Truong Son, Vietnam, with an identification key. Zootaxa 1493: 1-40 - get paper here
 
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