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Caaeteboia amarali (WETTSTEIN, 1930)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Amaral's Ground Snake 
SynonymLiophis amarali WETTSTEIN 1930: 93
Liophis amarali — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 176
Liophis amarali incertae sedis — DIXON 1980: 4
Caaeteboia amarali — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caaeteboia amarali — WALLACH et al. 2014: 131
Caaeteboia amarali — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Parana, Santa Catarina, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: Bello Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NMW 23107 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Caaeteboia): Small (much less than 1 m), slender snakes with slender transverse (maxillary) processes of pre‐ maxillae bearing a small additional process oriented posteriorly from each transverse process (these are in addition to the vomerine processes); hemipenis typi‐ cally xenodontine, i.e., bilobed, semicapitate and sem‐ icalyculate; sulcus spermaticus divides on the proxi‐ mal region; branches of the sulcus on the lobes with centrolineal orientation; lobes small, the medial lobe shorter than the lateral one; capitula ornamented with small, ill‐defined papillate calyces, restricted to the sulcate and lateral surfaces of the lobes; hemipenial body ornamented with well‐defined lateral enlarged spines and smaller spines covering the asulcate and sulcate sides of the organ out of the intrasulcar region; body spines decreasing in length toward the base. 
Comment“incertae sedis” (of unclear status) according to DIXON 1989.

Type species: Liophis amarali Wettstein, 1930 is the type species of the genus Caaeteboia ZAHER et al. 2009.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Afranio do Amaral (1894-1982), physician, zoologist, herpetologist and Director of the Instituto Butantan (1919-1921 and 1928-1938). 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R. 1980. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis. The generic concept. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 31: 1-40
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., L. Ramos & D. N. Pereira 2012. Distribution, natural history, and morphology of the rare snake, Caaeteboia amarali (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 48 (1): 51-58 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wettstein, O. 1930. Eine neue colubridae Schlange aus Brasilien. Zool. Anz. 88: 93-94
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
 
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