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Calamaria linnaei BOIE, 1827

IUCN Red List - Calamaria linnaei - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Calamariinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Linne's Dwarf Snake 
SynonymCalamaria linnaei BOIE 1827: 539
Calamaria multipunctata REINWARDT in BOIE 1827
Calamaria maculosa REINWARDT in BOIE 1827
Calamaria versicolor RANZANI 1837
Calamaria versicolor — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 69
Calamaria linnaei var. tessellata JAN 1862
Calamaria linnaei var. bilineata JAN 1862
Calamaria linnaei var. transversalis JAN 1862
Calamaria linnaei var. contaminata JAN 1862
Calamaria linnaei var. rhomboidea JAN 1862
Calamaria versicolor — JAN 1865
Calamaria versicolor var. rhomboidalis — JAN 1865
Calamaria brevis BOULENGER 1894
Calamaria sondaica BARBOUR 1908: 319
Calamaria linnaei var. multilineata WERNER 1910: 278
Calamaria borneensis var. ventrimaculata HOLTZINGER 1916
Calamaria margaritophora gastropicta HOLTZINGER 1920
Calamaria pavimentata HOLTZINGER 1920 (non DUMÉRIL & BIBRON)
Changulia multipunctata MERTENS 1929
Calamaria linnaei — INGER & MARX 1965: 200
Calamaria linnaei — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 325
Calamaria linnaei — INGER & VORIS 2001
Calamaria linnaei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 138 
DistributionIndonesia (Java, Bangka)

Type locality: Java  
TypesHolotype: RMNH RENA 37
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.3.45 (BM [brevis]
Holotype: RMNH RENA 29 [reticulata]
Syntypes: RMNH RENA 32 (2) [maculosa]
Syntypes: RMNH RENA 26 [multimunctata]
Holotype: MCZ 7102 [sondaica] 
DiagnosisDescription: Habitus vermiform; head not distinct from neck; tail short.
Eye distinct, diameter greater than, equal to, or smaller than eye-mouth distance; rostral rounded; paired prefrontals fused with inter-nasals and in contact with supralabials; frontal 1.5 to 8 times width of supraocular; parietal meeting last supralabial; an enlarged para-parietal(Fig.1); 4or5supralabials,secondandthird,third,orthird and fourth touching eye; nasal single and surrounding nostril; no loreal; a single preocular present or absent; one postocular; no anterior temporal; mental touching or separated from anterior chin shields; 5 infralabials, first two or three touching anterior chin shield; two pairs of chin shields, posterior ones meeting or separated in midline; 3 or 4 gular scales in midline between chin shields and first ventral.
Dorsal scales in 13 longitudinal rows throughout body length; scales smooth; no apical pits; anal single; subcaudals paired.
Posterior vertebrae without hypapophyses; 6 to 12 maxillary teeth, modified (Fig. 3) in most species; palatal and mandibular teeth conical (Inger & Marx 1965).

Diagnosis: This genus can be distinguished from all other snakes on the basis of the combination of the following characters: dorsal scales in 13 rows throughout body; internasals and prefrontals fused; parietal broadly in contact with supralabials (Inger & Marx 1965). 
CommentSynonymy after INGER & MARX 1965. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Crottyreedus Hoser 2012, Freudreedus Hoser 2012, Oxyreedus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Calamaria.

Type species: Calamaria linnaei is the type species of the genus Calamaria BOIE 1827.

The ICZN has ruled that the current usage of the generic name Calamaria H. Boie in F. Boie, 1827 for a genus of Asian colubrid snakes is conserved by setting aside all previous fixations of type species and designating Calamaria linnaei H. Boie in F. Boie, 1827 as the type species (Opinion 2196, Case 3557, see link). Savage 2015 has pointed out that the name of the family needs to be Calamariidae, not Calamaridae (or Calamariinae if it is considered as a subfamily).

Key: Weinell et al. 2020 provide a key to the species of Calamaria from the Philippine Islands. Inger & Marx 1965 have keys for all species and separate keys for species from Borneo, Sumatra, Java, the Asian mainland, Celebes and Moluccas, the Philippines, 
EtymologyNamed after Carolus Linnaeus (also Carl von Linné, 1707-1778), Swedish naturalist and founder of biological taxonomy and the binomial system. For a criticism of Linnaeus see Lavilla 2012. 
  • Barbour, THOMAS 1908. Some new reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 51 (12): 315-325 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis von Oken 20: 508-566. - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid; Burden, W. Douglas 1927. Results of the Douglas Burden Expedition to the Island of Komodo. II, Snakes from the East Indies. American Museum novitates (287) - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L., H. Kaiser & N. S. Yaakob 2004. A new species of Reed Snake of the genus Calamaria H. Boie, 1827, from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 28 (1&2): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R.T. 2012. A division of the Asian reed snakes, genus Calamaria Boie, 1827 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Calamariinae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 13:61–64. - get paper here
  • Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. K. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography 28: 863-89 1
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 10. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Lavilla, E.O. 2012. Skepticism and gullibility in Linnaeus’ herpetological contributions. Herpetologia Brasileira 1 (2): 65-81 - get paper here
  • LESCURE J. and DAVID P. 2007. The birth and infancy of Herpetology. Part 1. From Aristotle to Linnaeus. Bibliotheca Herpetologica 7 (1): - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • MEGANTARA, E. N., JAUHAN, J., SHANIDA, S. S., HUSODO, T., FAUZI, D. A., HENDRAWAN, R., WULANDARI, I. & YUANSAH, Y. 2022. Herpetofauna distribution in different land cover types of West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(6) - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Yury A. Lukin 2020. A Revised Herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (6): 353-368 - get paper here
  • Ranzani 1820. Memor. Matem. fis. Societ. Ital. scienz. resid. in Moden, Tom. XXI: 101
  • Savage, J.M.; Myers, C.W. 2005. CASE 3357: Calamaria H. Boie in F. Boie, 1827 (Reptilia, Serpentes): proposed conservation and designation of C. linnaei H. Boie in F. Boie, 1827 as the type species. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 62(4). - get paper here
  • Savage, Jay M. 2015. What are the correct family names for the taxa that include the snake general Xenodermus, Pareas, and Calamaria? Herpetological Review 46 (4): 664-665 - get paper here
  • SIDIK, IRVAN; DADANG R. SUBASLI, SUTIMAN B. SUMITRO, NASHI WIDODO, NIA KURNIAWAN 2018. First record of the Genus Calamaria (Squamata: Colubridae: Calamariinae) from Karimunjawa Island, Indonesia: Morphology and systematic. BIODIVERSITAS 19 (3): 912-917 - get paper here
  • Sidik, Irvan; Sutiman Bambang Sumitro, Nia Kurniawan 2018. The Linnaeus’s Reed Snake, Calamaria linnaei Boie (Squamata: Colubridae: Calamariinae) from Ijen Plateau, East Java, Indonesia. Research Journal of Life Science, [S.l.] 5 (1): 42-53 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, J. L., Leviton, A. E., & Brown, R. M. 2021. A new species of reed snake, genus Calamaria (Colubridae: Calamariinae), from Mindoro Island, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, DOI 10.26757/pjsb2020b14006 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1910. Neue oder seltenere Reptilien des Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique in Brüssel. [Mabuia dolloi, Mabuia polylepis]. Zool. Jb. Abt. Syst. Okol. Geogr. 28 [1909]: 263-288. - get paper here
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