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Calotes calotes (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Common Green Forest Lizard, Green Forest Calotes
G: Sägerückenagame 
SynonymLacerta Calotes LINNAEUS 1758: 207
Iguana calotes — LAURENTI 1768: 49
Agama calotes — DAUDIN 1802: 361
Agama ophiomachus MERREM 1820: 51 (nom. subst.)
Agama lineata KUHL 1820 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Calotes ophiomachus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 403
Calotes ophiomachus — BLYTH 1846
Calotes ophiomachus — BOULENGER 1885: 327
Calotes calotes — LÖNNBERG 1896: 15
Calotes ophiomachus — ANNANDALE 1909: 255
Calotes calotes — SMITH 1935: 201
Calotes calotes — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 29
Calotes calotes — KARUNARATHNA & AMARASINGHE 2011 
DistributionS India (Travancore, Shevaroy Hills, Tamil Nadu, Western Ghats, Kerala, Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka

Type locality: “Asia, Zeylona”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NRM = Royal Museum Stockholm 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Medium to large sized agamids with a relatively broader head; dorsal and lateral scales uniform, arranged in rows of backwardly pointed scales; dorsal and nuchal crest more or less developed; groups or rows of spines from eye to above tympanum; often an antehumeral skin fold or pit present covered with small scales; gular sac usually present; tympanum naked; tail long and slender, usually swollen and rounded at the base in males; no preanal or femoral pores. (from Pal et al. 2018: 415)

Diagnosis and comparisons. A medium to large sized Calotes characterized by the posterodorsal orientation of lateral scales; antehumeral pit indistinct; 30–35 midbody scale rows; nuchal and dorsal crest continuous, nuchal crest composed of long lanceolate spines; dorsal spines smaller, gradually diminishing in size, extending beyond the midbody; a row of 8–9 compressed supratympanic spines, divided into two groups; dorsal and lateral scales large, smooth or feebly keeled, ventral scales strongly keeled, mucronate, equal to or slightly larger than laterals; paired postmentals, first pair separated by 1 to 2 median scales; 21–24 subdigital lamellae under fourth finger, 27– 29 subdigital lamellae under fourth toe; 10–12 supralabials and 9–11 infralabials; uniform, bright green above, with 5–6 thin white transverse stripes, often continuing on the tail as indistinct bands; a bright red horizontal stripe across the orbit; posterior part of the tail dull brown; ventrally pale green; juveniles bright green, white transverse stripes indistinct.
From other members of Smith’s C. versicolor group (C. versicolor, C. nemoricola, C. grandisquamis, C. minor, C. maria, C. jerdoni, C. emma and C. mystaceus) C. calotes can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: smaller body size: adult SVL 73.6–96.8 mm, n=3 (vs. C. nemoricola, adult SVL 112–134.8 mm, n=7; and C. grandisquamis, adult SVL 110.0–136.5 mm, n=5); 30–35 midbody scale rows (vs. 38–45 in C. versicolor, n=9, 36–43 in C. nemoricola; 58–63 in C. maria; 45–57 in C. jerdoni; 49–65 in C. emma; 48–58 in C. mystaceus and 48–60 in C. minor); ventral scales equal to or slightly larger than laterals (vs. ventral scales smaller than laterals in C. nemoricola, C. grandisquamis, C. versicolor, C. minor, C. maria, C. jerdoni, C. emma and C. mystaceus); crescent-shaped patch of granular scales in front of the shoulder absent (vs. present in C. nemoricola, C. grandisquamis, C. jerdoni, C. emma and C. mystaceus); and a row of 8–9 compressed supratympanic spines (vs. row of 3–4 compressed supratympanic spines in C. nemoricola and C. grandisquamis; two well separated supratympanic spines in C. versicolor; two parallel rows of compressed supratympanic scales in C. maria and C. jerdoni; single well developed postorbital spine in C. emma). (from Pal et al. 2018: 419) 
CommentSynonymy partly after SMITH 1935.

Distribution: Has been reported from the Nicobar Islands but not listed by DAS 1999.

Diagnostic characters: Calotes have 46–65 caudal vertebrae and the genus Agama have 35–45 except Agama hispida, which have 20–34 (Moody 1980).

Illustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003.

Type species: Lacerta Calotes LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Calotes CUVIER 1817: 35.

Very common in Sri Lanka (BAHIR & SURASINGHE 2005).

Habitat: Most members of genus Calotes are arboreal except Calotes chincollium, which are reported to be primarily on ground during feeding (Vindum et al. 2003). 
Etymology 
References
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