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Cercosaura anordosquama STURARO, RODRIGUES, COLLI, KNOWLES & AVILA-PIRES, 2018

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCercosaura anordosquama STURARO, RODRIGUES, COLLI, KNOWLES & AVILA-PIRES 2018
Cercosaura ocellata — VANZOLINI 1986: 14
Cercosaura ocellata ocellata — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 361 (part)
Cercosaura ocellata — PELLEGRINO et al. 2001: 317
Cercosaura sp. — PRUDENTE et al. 2013: 45
Cercosaura ocellata — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2015: 283 
DistributionBrazil (Pará, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia)

Type locality: Acampamento Mutum, municipality of Juruti, Pará state, Brazil (2°36’34”S and 56°11’46”W)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MPEG 25319 (field number AL 112), an adult male, collected by A. Lima, between February 7 and March 3, 2007.
Paratypes: BRAZIL: Amazonas: Apuí: Parque Estadual do Sucunduri (INPA 17426). Borba (USNM 200685); Santa Bárbara, left margin of Rio Canumã (MPEG 16966); São João, Fazenda do rio Marimari, left margin (MPEG 16972); São Raimundo, Foz do Canuma (RMNH 47110). Humaitá (CHUNB 32286–90). Manicoré: Campo Catuquira (INPA 20303, INPA 20316, INPA 20329–30). Maués: Comunidade Bragança, Rio Paraconi, Floresta Nacional Pau-Rosa (MPEG 27654–55, MPEG 27657); Comunidade São Tomé, Rio Paraconi, Floresta Nacional Pau-Rosa (MPEG 27656, MPEG 27658–59). Nova Aripuanã: Lago Cipotuba, right margin of Rio Aripuanã (MZUSP 91379–80); Comunidade Projó, left margin of Rio Aripuanã (INPA 18448). Santa Maria: Terra Preta (MZUSP 91381). Tapauá: Parque Nacional Nascentes do Lago Jari (INPA 27394–96). Mato Grosso: Aripuanã: (MZUSP 81551–53, MZUSP 82648–53). Juruena: (MZUSP 82425–27). Pará: Altamira: Moraes de Almeida (MPEG 25135–36). Aveiro: Monte Cristo, Rio Tapajós (MCZ 127765–66). Itaituba: Base IBAMA 1, trilha de Tracuá, Parque Nacional da Amazônia, Rio Tapajós (MPEG 22356–57); Buburé, Parque Nacional da Amazônia, Rio Tapajós (MZUSP 53700–05); Parque Nacional da Amazônia (MPEG 29474); Parque Nacional da Amazônia, around 130 km SW of Itaituba, Rio Tapajós (USNM 288911); Parque Nacional da Amazônia, around 65 km SW of Itaituba, Rio Tapajós (USNM 288905); Parque Nacional da Amazônia, around 66 km SW of Itaituba, Rio Tapajós (USNM 288909–10); Trilha da Piçarreira, Transamazônica, 2 km of north of the base of Ibama, Parque Nacional da Amazônia (MPEG 29443); Uruá, Parque Nacional da Amazônia, Rio Tapajós (MZUSP 52506–12, MZUSP 53639–40). Juruti: Área de Prospecção da ALCOA: Acampamento Mutum (MPEG 20779); Acampamento Mutum, Área A (MPEG 20823); Acampamento Mutum, Área B (MPEG 20850); Área B (MPEG 20837); Adutora (MPEG 26495); Barroso (MPEG 25320, MPEG 26499, MPEG 28240); Beneficiamento (MPEG 25203, MPEG 25324–25, MPEG 25329, MPEG 25335–36); Café Torrado (MPEG 25330); Capiranga (MPEG 25321); Galiléia (MPEG 26497–98, MPEG 28241); km 26 of railway (MPEG 25331–33); km 32 of railway (MPEG 25322–23, MPEG 25325, MPEG 25327–28, MPEG 25334, MPEG 25337); Mutum (MPEG 25318, MPEG 29179); Pacoval (MPEG 26494, MPEG 26496); Platô Capiranga (MPEG 25025–26); near Acampamento Mutum (MPEG 20781, MPEG 20784); Mata do Acampamento Mutum (MPEG 20783); Mata entre base Capiranga e Acampamento Mutum (MPEG 20834–35). Novo Progresso: 2.9 Km south of Novo Progresso, 3,5 km west of BR-163, near airport (MPEG 28437); 9 Km south of Novo Progresso, 3,5 km west of BR-163, close to the airport (MPEG 28457–58). Santarém: 74 km SE Santarém, Sudam Floral Reserve (KU 130220); CEMEX, Agropecuária Treviso LTDA, 101.0 Km S, 18.0 Km E Santarém (OMNH 36763– 67); Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (MPEG 20141–42); Rodovia Santarém-Cuiabá (BR-163), km 101 (sede DP Pau Rosa,) Agropecuária Treviso Ltda (MPEG 17422, MPEG 17428, MPEG 17587, MPEG 17590). Vitória do Xingu: Bom Jardim, left margin of Rio Xingu, Usina Hidrelétrica Belo Monte (MPEG 25525–30); Usina Hidrelétrica Belo Monte, Arroz Cru, left margin of Rio Xingu (MPEG 19274); Usina Hidrelétrica Belo Monte, Bom jardim, left margin of Rio Xingu (MPEG 24920, MPEG 24922–23). Rondônia: Espigão do Oeste: Fazenda Jaburi (MPEG 21917, MPEG 21930–31). Guajará-Mirim: Parque Nacional da Serra da Cotia (MPEG 21543). Jamari: Floresta Nacional do Jamari, Itapuã do Oeste (MPEG 31438). Porto Velho: (CHUNB 66088–89, CHUNB 66091–92); Jaci Esquerda (MPEG 22118); Reserva Extrativista Lago do Cuniã (CHUNB 66640, CHUNB 66642); Usina Hidroelétrica de Santo Antônio (MPEG 30706). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cercosaura with maximum female SVL 61.8 mm and maximum male SVL 58.2 mm; snout round; frontonasal single; nasal, loreal and frenocular undivided; loreal in contact with first supralabial; five infralabials to posterior margin of eyes; five pairs of chinshields; 12–17 neck scales in a vertical row; 24–31 scales around midbody; dorsal scales hexagonal, slightly keeled and not in regular longitudinal rows, twice as long as scales on flanks, 31–35 along a middorsal line, from occipitals to anterior margin of hind limbs; six longitudinal rows of ventrals; precloacal plate in males with two anterior and two posterior scales, in females with two anterior and four posterior scales; 4–9 femoral pores on one side in males, 0–6 in females; 6–8 lamellae under finger I; head, throat and body ventrally predominantly white or cream (in adult males it may become orange).

COMPARISONS: Species of the Cercosaura ocellata group differ from all other congeners (state of characters in parentheses) by the presence of dorsals completely (C. ocellata, C. bassleri, C. olivacea) or partially (Cercosaura anordosquama sp. nov.) in longitudinal rows (not in longitudinal rows); from C. hypnoides, C. manicata, C. nigroventris and C. phelpsorum by having an undivided nasal and belly predominantly white or cream (nasal divided, belly totally or partially dark-blue, black, vermiculate black or dark-blue, or cream with black blotches); from C. argulus and C. oshaughnessyi by presenting a single frontonasal (divided), snout round (pointed), dorsals hexagonal (elongate-hexagonal), and eight longitudinal rows of dorsals (12–15 in C. argulus and 11–17 in C. oshaughnessyi); from C. quadrilineata, C. parkeri, C. schreibersii and C. steyeri by having dorsals hexagonal (phylloid), sharply distinct from scales on flanks (scales on flanks subequal to or slighthly smaller than dorsals); from C. eigenmanni by the presence of femoral pores, with few exceptions in C. olivacea and C. anordosquama sp. nov. (absent in females), dorsals hexagonal (elongate-hexagonal), 5–9 lamellae under finger I (3–4), and subdigital lamellae not or only slightly tuberculate (with alternating single and double tubercles). Cercosaura anordosquama sp. nov. differs from C. ocellata, C. bassleri and C. olivacea by presenting five pairs of chinshields (four pairs); five infralabials to posterior margin of eyes (four); and dorsals only partially organized in longitudinal rows (in regular longitudinal rows). Among C. ocellata, C. bassleri and C. olivacea, only C. bassleri presents the loreal divided; numbers of femoral pores are smaller in C. olivacea (males 2–4, females 0–2, rarely 3) than in C. ocellata (males 3–8, females 3–7, rarely 2) and C. bassleri (males 3–8, females 3–7); and mean number of scales at midbody is smallest in C. olivacea (24.6), intermediate in C. ocellata (26.8), and highest in C. bassleri (31.5).
There is a large variation in color pattern, partially common to two or more species in this group. Cercosaura anordosquama sp. nov. differs from the others by presenting only dorsolateral light stripes, while all others tend to present four light stripes on back, but they may be (all four or only paravertebral ones) more or less evident. Bands between these light stripes also vary in all species, but C. ocellata is the only one that may present complete black bands highly contrasting with the light stripes, while series of dark spots were not observed in this species, but is common in C. bassleri and C. olivacea. Ocelli in C. olivacea males are the smallest within this species group. 
CommentSympatry: C. ocellata (in the Tapajós–Xingu interfluve), C. bassleri (in the Purus–Madeira interfluve), C. olivacea (in Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil).

Habitat: leaf litter of primary and secondary ‘terra-firme’ (non-flooded) forest. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in apposition in allusion to the dorsal scales that are not in longitudinal rows, as in his sister group, C. ocellata: from the Latin “an + ordo + squama”, meaning scales out of order. 
References
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K. C. M.; Rodrigues, M. T.; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y.; Sites, J. W. 2001. A molecular perspective on the evolution of microteiid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), and a new classification for the family. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74 (3): 315-338 - get paper here
  • Prudente, A.L.C.; F. Magalhães; A. Menks; J.F.M. Sarmento. 2013. Checklist of Lizards of the Juruti, state of Pará, Brazil. Check List 9 (1):42-50 - get paper here
  • Sturaro, M. J., Rodrigues, M. T., Colli, G. R., Knowles, L. L., & Avila-Pires, T. C. S. 2018. Integrative taxonomy of the lizards Cercosaura ocellata species complex (Reptilia: Gymnophthalmidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Simón E. Lobos, Pablo J. Venegas 2015. Phylogeny of Neotropical Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 281–288 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1986. Levantamento herpetológico da área do estado de Rondonia sob a influencia da rodovia BR 364. Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Brasilia, DF, 50 pp.
 
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