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Chelonia mydas (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Chelonia mydas - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaCheloniidae (Cheloniinae), Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesChelonia mydas mydas LINNAEUS 1758
Chelonia mydas agassizi BOCOURT 1868
Chelonia mydas japonica (THUNBERG 1787) 
Common NamesE: Green Turtle
G: Suppenschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo mydas LINNAEUS 1758: 197
Testudo macropus WALBAUM 1782 (nomen illegitimum)
Testudo marina vulgaris LACÉPÈDE 1788 (nomen subst. pro T. mydas L.)
Testudo cepediana DAUDIN 1802
Chelonia mydas — SCHWEIGGER 1812
Caretta cepedii MERREM 1820 (nomen subst. pro T. cepediana DAUDIN)
Chelonia lachrymata CUVIER 1829
Testudo Mydas — CUVIER 1831: 15
Chelonia Midas — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 538
Euchelus macropus GIRARD 1858
Chelonia albiventer NARDO 1864
Thalassiochelys albiventer — GÜNTHER 1865 (Zool. Rec. 1864: 148)
Chelonia midas — BOCAGE 1866 (ex errore)
Mydas viridis GRAY 1870
Chelone mydas — BOULENGER 1889: 180
Natator tessellatus MCCULLOCH 1908
Chelonia mydas carrinegra CALDWELL 1962
Chelonia mydas — STEBBINS 1985: 105
Chelonia mydas — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Chelonia mydas — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 76
Chelonia mydas — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 229
Chelonia mydas — COGGER 2000: 180

Chelonia mydas mydas (LINNAEUS 1758)
Testudo viridis SCHNEIDER 1783
Chelonia virgata SCHWEIGGER 1812
Caretta esculenta MERREM 1820
Chelonia maculosa CUVIER 1829
Chelonia bicarinata LESSON 1834 (in BÉLANGER)
Chelonia Virgata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 541
Chelonia maculosa — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 544
Chelonia Marmorata DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 546
Chelonia virgata — GÜNTHER 1864: 53
Chelone virgata — BOULENGER 1887: 407
Chelonia virgata — BARBOUR 1918: 488
Chelonia mydas mydas — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928
Chelonia mydas mydas — FRITZ & HAVAS 2007

Chelonia mydas agassizi BOCOURT 1868
Chelonia agassizi BOCOURT 1868: 122
Testudo japonica THUNBERG 1787: 178
Testudo rugosa DAUDIN 1802 (non Testudo rugosa SHAW)
Caretta thunbergi MERREM 1820 (nomen subst. pro T. japonica THUNBERG)
Chelonia mydas [var.] japonica, GRAY 1831
Chelonia formosa GIRARD 1858
Chelonia tenuis GIRARD 1858
Chelonia agassizii BOCOURT 1868
Chelonia agassizii — GRAY 1873: 113
Chelonia lata PHILIPPI 1887
Chelonia japonica — STEJNEGER 1907: 509
Natator tesselatus MCCULLOCH 1908
Chelonia mydas agassizii — STEBBINS 1985: 105
Chelonia agassizii — LINER 1994
Chelonia agassizzii [sic] — LEHR 2002: 201
Chelonia agassizii — BONIN et al 2006
Chelonia mydas agassizii — FRITZ & HAVAS 2007

Chelonia mydas japonica (THUNBERG 1787)
Testudo japonica THUNBERG 1787: 178
Chelonia japonica — GARMAN 1908: 8
Chelonia japonica — STEJNEGER 1910
Chelonia mydas japonica — SHANNON 1956
Chelonia mydas japonica — PAWLOWSKI & KRÄMER 2008 
DistributionAtlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, chiefly in the tropics.

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Croatia ?), Italy (occasional occurence [E. RAZZETTI, pers. comm.]) Turkey [Basoglu 1973], France, Portugal

Indian Ocean: Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Grande Comore, Mohélim Anjouan, Mayotte), Chagos Archipelago

Chineses Sea: Vietnam

Pacific: as far north as Alaska and in the

Atlantic Ocean: as far north as Great Britain, Gambia

Africa: Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania

Australia (New South Wales?, North Territory, Queensland, West Australia), Nauru?

Americas: Canada (British Columbia), USA (incl. New York, Texas),
SE Mexico (Yucatan, Baja California, Tamaulipas), Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], Argentina, Uruguay

Asia: Korea, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands

mydas: Atlantic Ocean

agassizi: eastern Pacific Ocean, Galapagos Islands; Iran, Hawaii (USA) and Papua New Guinea; Type locality: "l'en bouchure du Nagualated, dans le Pacifique (Guatémala)" [Embayment of Río Nagualate, Guatemala]

japonica: Indian and Western Pacific Ocean

acording to the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals:
EC/NE/NW/SE/SW/WC Atlantic, Indian Ocean eastern, Indian Ocean
western, Mediterranean and Black Sea, EC/NW/SW/WC Pacific,
American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas,
Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico, Montserrat, Mozambique, Myanmar (= Burma), Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Marianas, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, St Helena, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent, Sudan, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, US Minor Pacific Islands, USA (Washington; Western Atlantic: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida), United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Viet Nam, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (US), Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Namibia

Type locality: “insulas Pelagi: insularum Adscensionis" [The Pelagie Islands and Ascencion Island]; restricted to Ascension Is., see Mertens, R. & Müller, L. (1928) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
Typesholotype: ZIUU 20; Syntypes: NRM (NHRM) 19, 26, and 231, according to Iverson (1992:84)
Syntypes (2): MNHN 1871-72 [now misplaced, according to Stuart, 1963]. Stated to be MNHN 9537 by Iverson (1992:83) [agassizi] 
CommentSome recent authors (e.g. E.A. Liner 1994) list Chelonia agassizii as a valid species. FRITZ (1995) reports hybrids between between Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata. C. mydas japonica is listed as a synonym of C. mydas by FRITZ & HAVAS 2007.

Reproduction: Chelonia mydas has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD, STANDORA & SPOTILA 1986, SARRE et al. 2004).

Habitat: marine.

Conservation status: endangered

Genomics: this is one of the species selected by the Genome 10K consortium for complete genome sequencing and a draft genome has been published in 2013 (Wang et al. 2013).

Type species: Testudo mydas LINNAEUS 1758: 197 is the type species of the genus Chelonia LATREILLE 1802: 22. 
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