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Chironius bicarinatus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1820)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTwo-headed Sipo 
SynonymColuber bicarinatus WIED 1820
Natrix bicarinatus (WIED) — MERREM 1820
Natrix bicarinata — WAGLER 1824: 23
Erpetodryas bicarinatus (WIED) — BOIE 1826
Herpetodryas bicarinatus (WIED) — WAGLER 1830
Herpetodryas bicarinata (WIED) — FITZINGER 1843
Herpetodryas carinatus (not of LINNAEUS) — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Herpetodryas carinatus var. bicarinata — BOETTGER 1898
Chironius carinatus (not of LINNAEUS) — AMARAL 1925
Chironius bicarinatus (Wied) — BAILEY 1955
Chironius bicarinatus — CEI 1993
Chironius bicarinatus — HOLLIS 2006
Chironius bicarinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 159 
DistributionBrazil (Espirito Santo, E Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, Goias, Sergipe, Bahia), NE Argentina (Misiones), NW Uruguay, Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Lake near the Rio Jacú, 5 "leguas" (= leagues)south of Espirito Santo city, Espirito Santo, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (DIXON et al. 1993) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Dixon et al. 1993: 59.
 
CommentBehavior: diurnal

Diet: mainly frogs (this seems to be true for most Chironius, fide CADLE 1992)

Map: Dixon et al. 1993: 61. 
Etymology 
References
  • Almeida, L D S; De Almeida, L H; Pedrozo, M & Moroti, M D T; 2018. Chironius bicarinatus (Two-headed Sipo) Diet Herpetological Review 49 (4): 750 - get paper here
  • Almeida-Santos, Selma M. & Otavio A.V. Marques 2002. Male-male ritual combat in the colubrid snake Chironius bicarinatus from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (4): 528-533 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Bovo, Rafael Parelli and Letícia Ruiz Sueiro. 2012. Records of predation on Itapotihyla langsdorffii (Anura: Hylidae) by Chironius bicarinatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) with notes on foraging substrate. Herpetology Notes 6: 291-292 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Hugo Cabral 2015. The genus Chironius (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Paraguay: composition, distribution, and morphology. Basic and Applied Herpetology 29: - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cadle, J. E. 1992. On Colombian snakes. Herpetologica 48: 134-143 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Castro, T.M. & Teixeira, R.L. 2007. Straßenverkehr als Bedrohung für die Amphibien und Reptilien des Atlantischen Regenwalds in Südost-Brasilien. Eine Fallstudie. Sauria 29 (2): 35-42 - get paper here
  • Cruz Centeno, Fernanda da; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya & Otavio Augusto Vuolo Marques 2008. Snake assemblage of Ilha de São Sebastião, southeastern Brazil: comparison to mainland. Biota Neotrop. 8(3): 63-68 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Wiest J A Jr; Cei J M 1993. Revision of the Neotropical snake genus Chironius Fitzinger (Serpentes, Colubridae). MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI MONOGRAFIE (TURIN) 13 :1-280
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Garda, A.A.; T.B. Costa; C.R. Santos-Silva; D.O. Mesquita; R.G. Faria; B.M. Conceição; I.R.S. Silva; A.S. Ferreira; S.M. Rocha; C.N.S. Palmeira; R. Rodrigues; S.F. Ferrari; S. Torquato. 2013. Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga I: Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia, Brazil). Check List 9 (2):405-414 - get paper here
  • Guedes, Thaís B.; Ricardo J. Sawaya, Alexander Zizka, Shawn Laffan, Søren Faurby, R. Alexander Pyron, Renato S. Bérnils, Martin Jansen, Paulo Passos, Ana L. C. Prudente, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, Henrique B. Braz, Cristiano de C. Nogueira, Alexandre 2017. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes. Global Ecol Biogeogr 00:1–8 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hollis, J.L. 2006. Phylogenetics of the genus Chironius Fitzinger 1826 (Serpenes, Colubridae) based on morphology. Herpetologica 62 (4): 435-452 - get paper here
  • Menezes FA, Abegg AD, Silva BR, Franco FL, Feio RN 2018. Composition and natural history of the snakes from the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil. ZooKeys 797: 117-160 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; A.M.X. Lima; D.C.P. Staut; R.G. Faria; J.P. Souza-Alves; S.F. Gouveia; M.R.C. Scupino; R. Gomes; M.J. Silva. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Refúgio de Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco, municipality of Capela, state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 756-762 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Oliveira Lula Salles, R. de & Silva-Soares, T. 2010. Répteis do município de Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil. Biotemas, 23 (2): 135-144
  • Oliveira Lula Salles, R. de; Weber, L.N. & Silva-Soares, T. 2010. Reptiles, Squamata, Parque Natural Municipal da Taquara, municipality of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Check List 6 (2): 280-286 - get paper here
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • Pontes, J.A.L.; Figueiredo, J.P., Pontes, RC. and Rocha, C.F.D. 2008. Snakes from the Atlantic Rainforest area of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: a first approximation to the taxocenosis composition. Braz. J. Biol. 68(3): 601-609 - get paper here
  • Roncolatto-Ortiz, Flora; Herbert Serafim, Angelita Pereira Rodrigues, Arthur Diesel Abegg, Francisco Luis Franco 2017. Snakes from Municipality of São José do Barreiro, State of São Paulo, Brazil Herpetology Notes 10: 479-486 - get paper here
  • Souza Filho, Gilberto Alves de; Fernanda Stender de Oliveira 2015. Squamate reptiles from Mauá Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Check List 11 (6): 1800 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, O., Echevarría, L.Y., Lobos, S.E., Venegas, P.J., Kok, P.J.R. 2018. Phylogeny, diversity and biogeography of Neotropical sipo snakes (Serpentes: Colubrinae: Chironius). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 130: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W. et al. 2007. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil. Check List 3 (4): 338-345 - get paper here
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. 1824. Verzeichniss der Amphibien, welche im zweyten Bande der Naturgeschichte Brasiliens vom Prinz Max von Neuwied werden beschrieben werden. Isis von Oken 14: 661—673 [columns] - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1820. Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. Vol. 1. Heinrich Ludwig Bronner, Frankfurt. - get paper here
  • Zocche, Jairo José; Karoline Ceron, Gabriel Schmidt Gonzaga, Gustavo Piletti Plucenio, Fernando Carvalho 2018. Predation on Chironius bicarinatus (Wied, 1820) (Serpentes: Colubridae) by Roadside Hawk Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) (Aves: Accipitridae). Herpetology Notes 11: 129-131 - get paper here
 
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