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Chironius laevicollis (WIED-NEUWIED, 1824)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Brazilian Sipo
G: Glatthälsige Natter 
SynonymColuber laevicollis WIED 1824: 666
Erpetodryas laevicolis (WIED) — BOIE 1826
Herpetodryas laevicollis (WIED) — WAGLER 1830
Hylophis laevicollis (WIED) — FITZINGER 1843
Herpetodryas carinatus (not of LINNAEUS) — BOULENGER 1894
Chironius laevicollis (WIED) — BAILEY 1955
Shironius laevicollis — HOGE 1964: 75 (in error)
Chironius laevicollis — HOLLIS 2006
Chironius laevicollis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 161 
DistributionSE Brazil (Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, S Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Bahia [HR 27: 212])

Type locality: Fazenda of Muribeca on the lower Rio Itabapoana, the state border of Espirito Santo with Rio de Janeiro. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: not given and none located (DIXON et al. 1993: 135) 
CommentDistribution: No type locality was given and no specific type specimen was designed by Wied (1824) in his brief original description. Map in DIXON et al. 1993: 137.

Illustration: Color image on cover of Phyllomedusa 2 (1) [2003]. This species shows ontogenetic color changes as most species of Chironius, namely from green to brownish to almost black.

DIAGNOSIS. Dorsal formula usually 10-12-10 in females, 10-12-10-8 in males; head above lip line black, body dark anteriorly, light posteriorly; abdominals 156-165; only paravertebral rows keeled and these not strongly so; maxillary teeth 32-38 [from BAILEY 1955; more recent diagnosis in DIXON et al. 1993: 135].

Original description: “An jeder Seite des Rückens eine Reihe gekielte Schuppen, die des Halses und Schwanzes glatt; Schwanz 5/12; Farbe an de Obertheilen dunkel rußfarben, vorn dunkeler, nach hinten blasser; Untertheile gelblich weiß; Schuppen der Seiten mit schwärzlichem Rande, daher die letzteren ein wenig marmorirt, auch einzelne irreguläre Flecke an den oberen Theilen.” [WIED 1824] 
References
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1955. The snakes of the genus Chironius in southeastern South America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (571): 1-21
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Cruz Centeno, Fernanda da; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya & Otavio Augusto Vuolo Marques 2008. Snake assemblage of Ilha de São Sebastião, southeastern Brazil: comparison to mainland. Biota Neotrop. 8(3): 63-68 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard & Nina, A.C.M. 1964. Serpentes coletadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. Mem. Inst. Butantan 30 [1960-1962]: 71-96 - get paper here
  • Hollis, J.L. 2006. Phylogenetics of the genus Chironius Fitzinger 1826 (Serpenes, Colubridae) based on morphology. Herpetologica 62 (4): 435-452 - get paper here
  • Marques, O.A.V. & Sazima, I. 2003. Ontogenetic color changes may strengthen suggestion about systematic affinities between two species of Chironius (Serpentes, Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 2 (1): 65-68 - get paper here
  • Marques, Otavio A. V.;Puorto, Giuseppe 1996. Geographic Distribution. Chironius laevicollis. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 212 - get paper here
  • Oliveira Lula Salles, R. de & Silva-Soares, T. 2010. Répteis do município de Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil. Biotemas, 23 (2): 135-144
  • Pontes, J.A.L.; Figueiredo, J.P., Pontes, RC. and Rocha, C.F.D. 2008. Snakes from the Atlantic Rainforest area of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: a first approximation to the taxocenosis composition. Braz. J. Biol. 68(3): 601-609 - get paper here
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. 1824. Verzeichniss der Amphibien, welche im zweyten Bande der Naturgeschichte Brasiliens vom Prinz Max von Neuwied werden beschrieben werden. Isis von Oken 14: 661—673 [columns] - get paper here
 
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