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Chironius scurrulus (WAGLER, 1824)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesWagler's Sipo 
SynonymNatrix scurrula WAGLER 1824: 24
Coluber scurrula (WAGLER) - WAGLER 1830
Dendrophis viridis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Herpetodryas fuscus (not of LINNAEUS) - GÜNTHER 1859
Herpetodryas carinatus var. scurrula (WAGLER) - JAN 1863
Herpetodryas holochlorus COPE 1876
Chironius cinnamomeus (not of WAGLER) - HOGE 1960
Chironius scurrulus (WAGLER) - HOGE 1964: 72
Chironius barrioi DONOSO-BARROS 1969
Herpetodryas holochloris (COPE) - MALNATE 1971
Chironius holochlorus — DONOSO-BARROS 1969: 190
Chironius scurrulus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 61
Chironius scurrulus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Chironius scurrulus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Chironius scurrulus — BOOS 2001
Chironius scurrulus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 162 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Minas Gerais, Rondonia, Para),
SE Colombia, N Bolivia, Ecuador
Venezuela (Bolivar, TF Amazonas [HR 32: 58])
E Peru (Moyobamba, Xeberos), Trinidad, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana

Type locality: “probably Rio Japura, Brazil” (fide KORNACKER 1999). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: ZSM 2628/0, male, designated by Hoogmoed & Gruber 1983. Type: lost (see comment) 
CommentType was probably originally deposited in the Zoologische Staatssammlung München, but Dr. Hellmich, Museum of Zoology, München, informed Hoge and Maranhao Nina that this type was either lost or destroyed during World War II.

This species shows ontogenetic color changes as most species of Chironius, namely from green to brownish to almost black.

Synonymy: motly after DIXON et al. 1993: 188.

Diagnosis: DIXON et al. 1993: 190.

Distribution: map in DIXON et al. 1993: 193. 
References
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2003. Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel V. Lacerta 61 (4): 123-133 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. de & Nascimento, R.P do 1982. Ofídios da Amazônia. XV - As espécies de Chironius da Amazônia Oriental (Pará, Amapá e Maranhão) (Ophidia : Colubridae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 139-172 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Wiest J A Jr; Cei J M 1993. Revision of the Neotropical snake genus Chironius Fitzinger (Serpentes, Colubridae). MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI MONOGRAFIE (TURIN) 13 :1-280
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard 1964. Mem. Inst. Butantan 30 [1960-1962]: 53, 59, 68 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard & Nina, A.C.M. 1964. Serpentes coletadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. Mem. Inst. Butantan 30 [1960-1962]: 71-96 - get paper here
  • Hollis, J.L. 2006. Phylogenetics of the genus Chironius Fitzinger 1826 (Serpenes, Colubridae) based on morphology. Herpetologica 62 (4): 435-452 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • KOK, PHILIPPE J. R. 2010. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from the Pantepui region, northeastern South America. Zootaxa 2611: 31–44 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Marques, O.A.V. & Sazima, I. 2003. Ontogenetic color changes may strengthen suggestion about systematic affinities between two species of Chironius (Serpentes, Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 2 (1): 65-68 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Moravec J., Aparicio J. 2005. Notes on the herpetofauna of Bioceanica and Bolpebra (Provincia Nicolas Suaréz, Departamento Pando, Biolivia). Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 174 (1-4): 95-113
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rivas, G. & E. La Marca. 2001. Geographic Distribution (Serpentes): Chironius scurrulus. Herpetological Review 32 (1): 58-59 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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