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Cnemaspis amboliensis SAYYED, PYRON & DILEEPKUMAR, 2018

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesAmboli Day Gecko 
SynonymCnemaspis amboliensis SAYYED, PYRON & DILEEPKUMAR 2018 
DistributionIndia (Maharashtra)

Type locality: Amboli (15.960 N, 73.999 E; 735 m elevation), Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India  
Reproductionoviparous; Sayyed et al. have observed gravid females in the months of September and October 
TypesHolotype: BNHS 2458 (adult male); collected on 23 October, 2015. Paratypes: BNHS 2459 (adult female), BNHS 2504, BNHS 2506, BNHS 2507, BNHS 2508, and BNHS 2505 (all male) have the same collection data as for the holo- type, collected on tree trunks, rocks, inside walls of local houses, and on stone compound walls. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Medium-sized day gecko, SVL less than 32 mm; dorsal scales on trunk heterogeneous; granular, keeled, small scales intermixed with some large keeled scales; some conical and spine-like tubercles on flank; ventral scales smooth, imbricate, larger than dorsal; 19–22 midbody scales across the belly; scales on snout feebly keeled; canthus rostralis and forehead granular, feebly keeled; rostral not swollen, medial groove absent; gular with carinate scales, anterior gular scales smooth; dorsal scales on forelimb and hindlimb tricarinate; tail sub-cylindrical, ventrally swollen, one small triangular post-anal spur along each side present in males; sub-caudal smooth, imbricate, second and third rows each side carinated, median row slightly enlarged; 6–7 lamellae on digit I of manus and 10 on digit IV, 6–7 on digit I of pes and 10–11 on digit IV; males with three or four pre-anal pores and 3–4 femoral pores on each side of thigh.

Remarks: Cnemaspis amboliensis is distinguished from C. goaensis by having a maximum SVL 32 mm (vs. less than 28.3 mm); rostral scale not divided, medial groove absent (vs. rostral scale partially divided by a medial groove); nares separated by two supranasals, of the three internasal scales, middle one extends towards snout tip (vs. nares separated by two enlarged supranasals, a single internasal); primary postmental scale separated by men- tal scale (vs. primary postmental scale separated by sin- gle gular scale); scales on ventral surface of neck smooth (vs. scales on ventral surface of neck feebly carinate); dorsal scales on forelimb and hindlimb tricarinate (vs. dorsal scales on both fore and hindlimb weakly carinate) (Table 6).

Comparison: Cnemaspis amboliensis may be distin- guished from all other peninsular Indian congeners on the basis of the following differing or non-overlapping characters: dorsal scales on trunk heterogeneous (vs. dorsal scales homogenous in C. adii, C. boiei, C. indi- ca, C. indraneildasii, C. jerdonii, C. kolhapurensis, C. littoralis, C. mysoriensis, C. nilagirica, C. sisparensis, and C. wynadensis); males with pre-anal and femoral pores (vs. males with femoral pores in C. flaviventralis, C. girii, C. heteropholis, and C. kottiyoorensis; no pre- anal or femoral pores in C. assamensis; two pre-anal pores present which is separated by two unpored scales, 3–5 femoral pores on each side in C. gracilis; femoral pores absent whereas pre-anal pores present in C. nairi); spine-like tubercles present on flanks (vs. spine like tu- bercles absent on flanks in C. anaikattiensis, C. australis, C. beddomei, C. ornate, C. otai, and C. yercaudensis); sub-caudal slightly enlarged and smooth; rostral medial groove absent (vs. no median series of enlarged sub-cau- dals; rostral medial groove present in C. flaviventralis; sub-caudals enlarged, keeled intermixed with smooth, carinate scales; rostral scale partially divided by a me- dial groove in C. monticola; no median series of enlarged sub-caudals in C. andersonii); males with three or four pre-anal pores and 3–4 femoral pores on each side of the thigh; dorsal scales on forelimb and hindlimbs tricari- nate, (vs. four pre-anal pores, four or five femoral pores on each side; dorsal scales on both fore and hind limbs smooth in C. wicksi); ventral scales smooth, imbricate; 19–22 midventrals (vs. ventral scales of the body keeled and imbricate; 28 midventrals in C. tropidogaster); from Cnemaspis limayei sp. nov. and Cnemaspis ajijae sp. nov. by having conical and spine-like tubercles on flank; presence of pre-anal pores; 19–22 midventrals (vs. coni- cal and spine-like tubercles absent; pre-anal pores absent in both species; 26–27 midventrals in Cnemaspis limayei sp. nov., 29–30 in Cnemaspis ajijae sp. nov.). New spe- cies is similar in size and general appearance to Cnemas- pis goaensis, however differs from this by rostral scale not divided, medial groove absent (Fig. 18a and 19a) (vs. rostral scale partially divided by a medial groove (Fig. 19b)); nares separated by two supranasals, of the three internasal scales, middle one extends towards snout tip (vs. nares separated by two enlarged supranasals, single internasal); primary postmental scale separated by men- tal scale (vs. primary postmental scale separated by sin- gle gular scale); scales on ventral surface of neck smooth (vs. scales on ventral surface of neck feebly carinate); granular keeled small scales intermixed with some large keeled scales dorsally; neck and sacrum with feebly keeled scales (vs. mid-dorsal granules, mixed with large keeled tubercles from head to sacrum); dorsal scales on forelimb and hindlimb tricarinate (Fig. 17a, b, and 20 a, c) (vs. dorsal scales on both fore and hindlimb weakly carinate (Fig. 20b, d)); lamellae manus 7–8–11–10–9, pes 7–9–11–11–10, measurement of right fingers: fourth finger larger than third, third larger than second, second larger than fifth, and fifth larger than first; toes: fourth larger than fifth, fifth larger than third, third larger than second, and second larger than first (vs. lamellae manus 9–12–13–15–11, pes 9–12–16–16–16; measurement of right fingers: fourth finger equal to second, third smaller than fourth and second, fifth smaller than third, and first smaller than fifth; toes: second larger than first, first larger than third, third larger than fourth, and fourth larger than fifth); sub-caudal smooth, imbricate, median row slightly enlarged, second and third rows each side carinated (Fig. 18d and 21c) (vs. median row of subcaudals slightly en- larged, smooth (Fig. 21d)); prominent acuminate keeled tubercles present with small keeled scales on dorsal tail (Fig. 18b and 21a) (vs. dorsal scales on mid-tail acute, imbricate, carinate (Fig. 21b)). 
CommentBehavior: nocturnal

Habitat: tree trunks and rocks of the wooded area of Amboli town, also found on the inside and outside of the walls of local houses and on the stone compound walls in Amboli town

Sympatry: Hemidactylus sp., Cyrtodactylus albofasciatus, H. prashadi, Cnemaspis kolhapurensis, C. flaviventralis, Bungarus caeruleus, Trimeresurus malabaricus, Lycodon travancoricus, Macropisthodon plumbicolor, Uropeltis sp., Raorchestes ghatei, Pseu- dophilautus amboli, Indirana chiravasi, Rhacophorus malabaricus, Xanthophryne tigerina, and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet amboliensis refers to the type locality Amboli, from which the type series was collected. 
References
  • Kwet, A. 2019. Liste der im Jahr 2018 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Elaphe 2019 (3): 52-72
  • Sayyed A, Pyron RA, Dileepkumar R. 2018. Four new species of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the northern Western Ghats, India. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 12(2) [General Section]: 1–29 (e157) - get paper here
 
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