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Cnemaspis ingerorum BATUWITA, AGARWAL & BAUER, 2019

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Common Names 
SynonymCnemaspis ingerorum BATUWITA, AGARWAL & BAUER 2019
Cnemaspis sp. 2 — AGARWAL et al. 2017
Cnemaspis kumarasinghei — MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI et al. 2007 [non Cnemaspis kumarasinghei WICKRAMASINGHE & MUNINDRADASA, 2007] 
DistributionSouthern Sri Lanka (Hambantota)

Type locality: Sandagala near Tissamaharama, Hambantota District, Southern Sri Lanka, 6.3416°N, 81.2666° E, ~100 m elevation  
Reproductionoviparous. An adult female (30.0 mm SVL) laid two hard shelled eggs, each about 6.0 x 5.0 mm, which hatched after 53 days; hatchling were 11.9 and 12.2 mm in SVL. 
TypesHolotype. NMSL WHT 7332, Male, 26.9 mm SVL, collected by S. Batuwita and J. R. De Lile, 29 July 2005. Paratypes: NMSL WHT 7330, Females, 22.2 mm SVL, NMSL WHT 7331, 24.1 mm SVL, same collection data as holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Small-sized gecko, maximum SVL 30.0 mm; pupil rounded; paired postmentals separated by a medial scale; nostril not in contact with first supralabial; 17–21 ventral scales across mid-body; dorsal scales heterogeneous, isolated scattered spinous tubercles on dorsum; gular, pectoral and abdomen scales smooth; two precloacal pores, five femoral pores on each side in male; subcaudals smooth, median row of enlarged subcaudals semicircular, consisting of a series with a single enlarged scale alternating with a pair of narrow scales; supralabials to angle of jaws seven; digits not dilated towards distal end; proximal lamellae wider than distal lamellae; all digits bearing recurved well-developed claws; subdigital lamellae under 4th digit of pes 16–18; dorsum olive green in life with about five black bands on dorsum; nape with a black spot and occipital area with two dark markings; venter white (Fig. 1A, B).
Cnemaspis ingerorum sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to C. kumarasinghei Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa (Fig. 1C). The new species differs from this species by the following suite of characters: 17–21 ventral scales across midbody (versus 24–26; not 34–36 as given by Wickramasinghe & Muindradasa, 2007), heterogeneous (versus homogeneous) dorsal scales, ventral sides of forelimb and hind-limb with smooth (versus keeled) imbricate scales, caudal scales on dorsal side unkeeled (versus keeled) and distinct banded (versus diffuse dark markings) dorsum colouration (Table 2). The new species also differs genetically from C. kumarasinghei by a 4.5% genetic difference in ND2 (Fig. 2). Cnemaspis ingerorum sp. nov. is most closely related to C. silvula Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda (Fig. 1D) with 4.5% uncorrected ND2 sequence divergence. The new species differs from C. silvula by the absence (versus presence) of keeled pectoral scales and dorsal scales, in having 8 (versus 10–15) pairs of irregular spine-like tubercles on flank, and by the presence of unkeeled (versus keeled) subcaudal scales.

Comparisons with regional congeners. Cnemaspis ingerorum sp. nov. differs from following South Asian congeners of Cnemaspis by having heterogeneous dorsal scales and unkeeled gular, pectoral and abdominal scales (versus having either homogeneous dorsal scales and/or keeled ventral scales): Cnemaspis alwisi Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, C. amith Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. andersonii (Annandale), C. australis Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. gemunu Bauer, De Silva, Greenbaum & Jackman, C. girii Mirza, Pal, Bhosale & Sanap, C. goaensis Sharma, C. gracilis (Beddome), C. heteropholis Bauer, C. indraneildasii Bauer, C. kandambyi Batuwita & Udugampala, C. kandiana (Kelaart), C. kumarasinghei, C. latha Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. littoralis (Jerdon), C. menikay Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. molligodai Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, C. monticola Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. nilagirica Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. pava Manamendra- Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. phillipsi Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. podihuna Deraniyagala, C. pulchra Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. punctata Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, C. rajakarunai Wickramasinghe, Vidanapathirana & Rathnayake, C. rammalensis Vidanapathirana, Rajeev, Wickramasinghe, Fernando & Wickramasinghe, C. retigalensis Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, C. samanalensis Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, C. scalpensis (Ferguson), C. silvula, C. tropidogaster (Boulenger), C. upendrai Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, and C. wicksii (Stoliczka).
Cnemaspis ingerorum sp. nov. has spine-like flank tubercles which differentiates it from the following species that lack these tubercles: C. indica (Gray), C. nairi Inger, Marx & Koshy, C. otai Das & Bauer, C. yercaudensis Das & Bauer, C. sisparensis (Theobald), C. kolhapurensis Giri, Bauer & Gaikwad, and C. wynadensis (Beddome). The new species is distinguished from C. boiei (Gray) by having imbricate ventral scales (versus juxtaposed in C. boiei).
The new species also differs from the following species by having both femoral and precloacal pores: Cnemaspis jerdonii (Theobald) (lacks precloacal pores), C. ornata (Beddome) (lacks femoral pores), and C. beddomei (Theobald) (lacks femoral pores). Cnemaspis ingerorum sp. nov. is distinguished from C. mysoriensis (Jerdon) by having 5 (versus 2–3) femoral pores. 
CommentSympatry: Hemidactylus frenatus, H. hunae, H. leschenaultii, H. depressus and H. lankae.

Habitat: rupicolous gecko usually observed on rock surfaces, but close to the ground or in the litter layer in rock caves. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is an eponym in the Latin genitive plural honouring Robert Frederick Inger and Tan Fui Lian Inger of the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH), for their enormous contributions to herpetology and in appreciation of their support for biodiversity exploration in Sri Lanka, and for their guidance to the first author. 
  • Agarwal, I., Biswas, S., Bauer, A.M., Greenbaum, E., Jackman, T.R., De Silva, A. & Batuwita, S. 2017. Cryptic species, taxonomic inflation, or a bit of both? New species phenomenon in Sri Lanka as suggested by a phylogeny of dwarf geckos (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae, Cnemaspis). Systematics and Biodiversity, 15, 427–439 - get paper here
  • BATUWITA, SUDESH; ISHAN AGARWAL, AARON M. BAUER 2019. Description of a new diminutive, rupicolous species of day-gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from southern Sri Lanka Zootaxa 4565 (2): 223–234 - get paper here
  • Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Batuwita, Sudesh & Pethiyagoda, Rohan 2007. A taxonomic revision of the Sri Lankan day-geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis), with description of new species from Sri Lanka and southern India. Zeylanica 7 (1): 9-122
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