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Cnemaspis upendrai MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI, BATUWITA & PETHIYAGODA, 2007

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCnemaspis upendrai MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI, BATUWITA & PETHIYAGODA 2007

Cnemaspis clivicola MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI, BATUWITA & PETHIYAGODA 2007
Cnemaspis cf. clivicola — KOTTAWA-ARACHCHI & GAMAGE 2015 
DistributionSri Lanka

Type locality: Pussellawa, Kandy District, Central Province of Sri Lanka, 07º05’N, 80º30’E, 900 m elevation.

clivicola: Sri Lanka; Type locality: Nanu Oya, Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province of Sri Lanka, 06º56’30”N, 80º44’30”E, 1623 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NMSL (= WHT) 7189 (male), 31.5 mm SVL, coll. S. Batuwita & K. Wewelwala, 27 November, 2002.
Holotype: NMSL (= WHT) 7204 (male), 36.6 mm SVL, coll. S. Batuwita, 11 August, 2005 [clivicola] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemaspis upendrai differs from its peninsular Indian and Sri Lankan congeners by a combination of the following characters. Maximum SVL 35.2 mm; paired postmentals separated by a medial scale; each postmental bounded by 4 scales including medial scale; ventrals, 112–128; ventral scales across midbody, 16–25; dorsal scales heterogeneous; a row of 15 irregular, spine-like tubercles present on flank; ventrals smooth; 2 or 3 preanal pores, 4 or 5 femoral pores on each side; subcaudals keeled, median row enlarged, irregular; supralabials to angle of jaws, 7 or 8; subdigital lamellae on digit IV of pes, 17–21; (in life) dorsum light-brown, with about eight median black markings extending from neck and on to tail; much larger, irregular, dark-brown blotches on sides; occipital region with two black chevrons, a light yellow marking between them, followed by a black spot on neck; a narrow interorbital band present; tail rusty brown; venter white. Some individuals uniform yellowish brown, without prominent dorsal markings [from MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI et al. 2007].

Diagnosis: Cnemaspis clivicola differs from its peninsular Indian and Sri Lankan congeners by a combination of the following characters. Maximum SVL 40.9 mm; paired postmentals separated by a medial scale; each postmental bounded by 4 scales including medial scale; ventrals, 128–144; ventral scales across mid-body, 20–26; dorsal scales heterogeneous; a row of 10–15 irregular spine-like tubercles present on flank; ventrals keeled; 3 or 4 preanal pores, 4 femoral pores on each side; subcaudals in median series not enlarged, keeled; supralabials to angle of jaws 7 or 8; subdigital lamellae on digit IV of pes 17–19; (in life) dorsum grey, with a series of seven W-shaped markings; a narrow interorbital band. [from MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI et al. 2007]. 
CommentSynonymy: Agarwal et al. 2017 synonymized C. clivicola and C. upendrai. The holotypes of these two species are only 0.1% genetically divergent from one another (with ND2 used as marker). 
EtymologyThe species name is a patronym Latinized in the genitive singular honouring the Sri Lankan prehistorian Dr Siran Upendra Deraniyagala.

The species name upendrai is Latin for ‘inhabitant of the hills’, an allusion to the montane type locality of this species. 
References
  • Agarwal, I., Biswas, S., Bauer, A.M., Greenbaum, E., Jackman, T.R., De Silva, A. & Batuwita, S. 2017. Cryptic species, taxonomic inflation, or a bit of both? New species phenomenon in Sri Lanka as suggested by a phylogeny of dwarf geckos (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae, Cnemaspis). Systematics and Biodiversity, 15, 427–439 - get paper here
  • Kottawa-Arachchi, J.D. & R. N. Gamage 2015. Herpetofaunal richness in Lippakelle Tea Estate, Sri Lanka TAPROBANICA 7 (4): 268–271 - get paper here
  • Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Batuwita, Sudesh & Pethiyagoda, Rohan 2007. A taxonomic revision of the Sri Lankan day-geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis), with description of new species from Sri Lanka and southern India. Zeylanica 7 (1): 9-122
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
  • VIDANAPATHIRANA, DULAN RANGA; M. D. GEHAN RAJEEV, NETHU WICKRAMASINGHE, SAMANTHA SURANJAN FERNANDO & L. J. MENDIS WICKRAMASINGHE & L. J. MENDIS WICKRAMASINGHE 2014. Cnemaspis rammalensis sp. nov., Sri Lanka’s largest day-gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from Rammalakanda Man and Biosphere Reserve in southern Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 3755 (3): 273–286
 
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