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Cnemidophorus murinus (LAURENTI, 1768)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesLaurent's Whiptail 
SynonymSeps murinus LAURENTI 1768: 63
Cnemidophorus murinus - WAGLER 1830
Cnemidophorus murinus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 126
Cnemidophorus murinus — BOULENGER 1885: 361
Cnemidophorus murinus murinus — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus murinus — DEARING & SCHALL 1994
Cnemidophorus murinus — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionCuracao, Bonaire I (Trinidad and Guianas fide BOULENGER 1885)

Type locality: in error; restricted to Curaçao by Burt (1935) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: unknown (based on illustration in Seba [1735: fig. 2, 111]) 
CommentType species: Seps murinus LAURENTI 1768 is the type species of the genus Cnemidophorus WAGLER 1830.

Diagnosis (genus): Cnemidophorus is the only genus of Teiidae with a single pair of preanal spurs in males and proximal hemipenial laminae ornamented in short papillae. Female Cnemidophorus can be distinguished from all other teiids by the combination of long first supraciliaries, long first supralabials with straight ventral margins, subtriangular to subcircular nostrils, five regular parietals, smooth ventrals, and a continuous postaxial row of keeled, serrate scales separating the digital lamellae of all five toes.

‘‘Cnemidophorus’’ murinus is more closely related to Kentropyx than to ‘‘C.’’
lacertoides, ‘‘C.’’ longicaudus, and/or ‘‘C.’’ ocellifer (REEDER et al. 2002).

Cnemidophorus murinus ruthveni BURT 1935 has been elevated to full species status.

The original type locality was given as “Java”, obviously in error.

Diagnosis.—A species of Cnemidophorus distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) max- imum SVL in males 159 mm (Lammere ́e, 1970); (2) nostril usually centered within nasal suture, occasionally slightly anterior to it; (3) rostral scale bluntly rounded; (4) frontonasal hexagonal or octagonal, forming slightly an- gular sutures with nasals; (5) first supraciliary usually separated from prefrontal, occasionally in contact; (6) scales of circumorbital semicir- cles 8–14 (total of both sides) in contact with supraoculars, extending to posterior portion of third or to anterior portion of fourth suprao- cular; (7) 60–92 (total of both sides) scales in a doubled or tripled row between supraoculars and supraciliaries; (8) mesoptychials barely to slightly enlarged; (9) ventrals usually in 10, rarely 12, longitudinal and 35–39 transverse rows; (10) bisexual (gonochoristic); (11) bra- chials barely enlarged and restricted to small patch near elbow; (12) males with one anal spur at each side; spur broad and short, extending very close to body; (13) 2–3 medium-size scales between anal spur and preanal shield; (14) subcaudals near base of tail smooth; (15) traces of vertebral and paravertebral stripes only present in juveniles; (16) adult males in life uniformly brown or gray with 14–23 large white or pale blue spots on flanks, greenish or bluish tint on head, and short, pale longitudinal stripes on temporal and supratemporal regions; (17) females in life uniformly gray-brown without greenish or bluish cast on head, and with 5–17 spots on flanks; (18) juvenile color pattern similar to that of adults but often with traces of dorsal striping [from UGUETO & HARVEY 2010]. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, C. E. 1931. A study of the teiid lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus with special reference to their phylogenetic relationships. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 154: 286 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. A new lizard from the Dutch Leeward Islands (Cnemidophorus murinus ruthveni). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (324): 1-3
  • COOPER, JR., WILLIAM E.; VALENTÍN PÉREZ-MELLADO;<br />TROY A. BAIRD; JANALEE P. CALDWELL and LAURIE J. VITT 2004. PURSUIT DETERRENT SIGNALLING BY THE BONAIRE WHIPTAIL LIZARD CNEMIDOPHORUS MURINUS. Behaviour 141: 297-311
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Dearing,M.D. & Schall,J.J. 1994. Atypical reproduction and sexual dimorphism of the tropical Bonaire island whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus murinus. Copeia 1994: 761-766 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Hughes, Daniel F. and Pablo R. Delis. 2014. Cnemidophorus murinus murinus (Laurent's whiptail) myiasis. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 126-127
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp.
  • Maslin, T. & Secoy, D.M. 1986. A checklist of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae). Contr. Zool. Univ. Colorado Mus. 1: 1-60
  • Presch, W. 1971. Tongue structure of the teiid lizard genera Ameiva and Cnemidophorus with a reallocation of Ameiva vanzoi. Journal of Herpetology 5: 183-185 - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N. and Michael B. Harvey 2010. Southern Caribbean Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): Description of New Species and Taxonomic Status of C. murinus ruthveni Burt. Herpetological Monographs 24 (1): 111-148 - get paper here
 
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