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Coluber bilineatus (JAN, 1863)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesSonoran Whipsnake
Ajo Mountain Whipsnake [lineolatus] 
SynonymMasticophis bilineatus JAN 1863: 65
Bascanium semilineatum COPE 1892 (fide WALLACH)
Masticophis semilineatus — TAYLOR 1938: 491
Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus HENSLEY 1950: 270
Masticophis bilineatus bilineatus — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Masticophis bilineatus bilineatus — LEWIS 1956
Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus — STEBBINS 1985: 184
Masticophis bilineatus — STEBBINS 1985: 183
Masticophis bilineatus — LINER 1994
Masticophis lineolatus — LINER 1994
Masticophis bilineatus — MATTISON 1995: 109
Coluber lineolatus — UTIGER et al. 2005 (by implication)
Coluber bilineatus — UTIGER et al. 2005 (by implication)
Masticophis bilineatus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber bilineatus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Masticophis bilineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 418
Masticophis bilineatus — O’CONNELL et al. 2017 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, SW New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, W Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Aguascalientes, Jalisco)

slevini: Isla San Esteban; Type locality: San Esteban Island, Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico.

lineolatus [synonym]: USA (Arizona: Ajo Mountains), Mexico; Type locality: USA: 12.9 S and 5 mi E North Branch of Alamo Canyon, via Rt. 85, Pima County, Arizona. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: MTD 15523 (now MTKD)
Holotype: SDSNH 3826; paratype SDSNH 41571 [slevini]
Holotype: SDSNH 43402; UIMNH 5611; Max Hensley; May 15, 1949 [fide PHILLIPS 2003 [lineolatus]] 
CommentSubspecies: GRISMER 1999 elevated slevini to full (evolutionary) species status. CAMPER & DIXON (1994) didn’t recognize any subspecies of M. bilineatus. Illustration (from Günther 1902) in Herp. Bull 72: 25. Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus has been elevated to full species status and more recently considered as a synonym of C. bilineatus (e.g. BOUNDY et al. 2012). C. lineolatus i not listed by CROTHER 2000 nor by Liner 2007. 
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Camper J D. 1996. Masticophis bilineatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (637): 1-4. - get paper here
  • Camper J D. Dixon J R. 1994. Geographic variation and systematics of the striped whipsnakes (Masticophis taeniatus complex; Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 63 (1): 1-48.
  • Cobarrubias, Edgar Flores; Daniel Cruz-Sáenz, and David Lazcano 2012. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 6: Amphibians and Reptiles of Hostotipaquillo, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 47 (2):21-26 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and <br />T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1866. Fourth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18: 123-132 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hensley,M. Max 1950. Results of the herpetological reconnaissance in extreme southwestern Arizona and adjacent Sonora, with a description of a new subspecies of sonoran whipsnake, Masticophis bilineatus. Trnas. Kansas Acad.Sci 53 (2): 270-288
  • Hibbitts, Toby J.;Hibbitts, Terry L. 1999. Geographic distribution. Masticophis bilineatus. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 54 - get paper here
  • Jan,G. 1863. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. Milano, A. Lombardi. vii + 143 pp.
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Lewis, Thomas H. and Murray L. Johnson 1956. Notes on a Herpetological Collection from Sinaloa. Herpetologica 12 (4): 277-280 - get paper here
  • Lowe,C.H. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Analysis of the herpetofauna of Baja California, Mexico. III. New and revived reptilian subspecies of Isla San Esteban, Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, with notes on other islands in the Gulf of California. Herpetologica 11: 89-96 - get paper here
  • McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. 2001. The herpetofauna of the Mexican State of Aguascalientes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 230: 1-57
  • O'Connell, K. A., Streicher, J. W., Smith, E. N. and Fujita, M. K. 2017. Geographical features are the predominant driver of molecular diversification in widely distributed North American Whipsnakes. Mol Ecol., DOI: 10.1111/mec.14295 - get paper here
  • Ortenburger, A. I. 1928. The whip snakes and racers, genera Masticophis and Coluber. Mem. Univ. Michigan Mus. 1:XViii + 247 pp. [CNAH reprint 8]
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Utiger, U.; Schatti, B. & Helfenberger, N. 2005. The oriental colubrine genus Coelognathus FITZINGER, 1843 and classification of old and new world racers and ratsnakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae, Colubrinae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 12 (1): 39-60 - get paper here
  • Vázquez Díaz, Joel;Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. 2005. Anfibios y Reptiles de Aguascalientes [2nd ed.]. CONABIO, CIEMA, 318 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
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