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Coluber constrictor LINNAEUS, 1758

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesColuber constrictor anthicus (COPE 1862)
Coluber constrictor constrictor LINNAEUS 1758
Coluber constrictor etheridgei WILSON 1970
Coluber constrictor flaviventris SAY 1823
Coluber constrictor foxii (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Coluber constrictor helvigularis AUFFENBERG 1955
Coluber constrictor latrunculus WILSON 1970
Coluber constrictor mormon (BAIRD & GIRARD 1852)
Coluber constrictor oaxaca (JAN 1863)
Coluber constrictor paludicola AUFFENBERG & BABITT 1955
Coluber constrictor priapus DUNN & WOOD 1939 
Common NamesE: Eastern Racer
anthicus: Buttermilk Racer
constrictor: Northern Black Racer
etheridgei: Tan Racer
flaviventris: Yellowbelly Racer
foxii: Blue Racer
helvigularis: Brownchin Racer
latrunculus: Blackmask Racer
mormon: Western yellow-bellied Racer
oaxaca: Mexican Racer
paludicola: Everglades Racer
priapus: Southern Black Racer
G: Schwarznatter 
SynonymColuber Constrictor LINNAEUS 1758: 216
Bascanion constrictor — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 93
Bascanion vetustus BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Coryphodon Constrictor — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 183
Bascanion constrictor BOCOURT 1890 (fide VILLA et als. 1988)
Zamenis constrictor — BOULENGER 1893: 387
Bascanium anthicum — COPE 1862: 338
Coluber ortenburgeri STUART 1934
Coluber ortenburgeri — STUART 1935
Coluber constrictor — STEBBINS 1985: 180
Coluber constrictor — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 183
Coluber constrictor — LINER 1994
Coluber constrictor constrictor — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 324
Coluber constrictor — CROTHER et al. 2012
Coluber constrictor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 172

Coluber constrictor anthicus (COPE, 1862)
Bascanium anthicum COPE 1862: 338
Coluber constrictor anthicus — DOWLING 1959
Coluber constrictor anthicus — WILSON, 1970: 72
Coluber constrictor anthicus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 332
Coluber constrictor anthicus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Coluber constrictor etheridgei WILSON, 1970
Coluber constrictor etheridgei WILSON 1970: 75
Coluber constrictor etheridgei — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 334
Coluber constrictor etheridgei — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Coluber constrictor flaviventris SAY1823
Coluber flaviventris SAY1823: 185
Coryphodon flaviventris — HALLOWELL 1856: 241
Bascanion flaviventris — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 96 (?)
Coluber constrictor var. flaviventris — GARMAN 1884: 42
Zamenis stejnegerianus COPE 1895 (see note)
Coluber constrictor flaviventris — GRANT 1937
Coluber constrictor stejnegerianus — MULIAK & MULIAK 1942
Coluber constrictor flaviventris — WILSON, 1970: 76
Coluber constrictor stejnegerianus — KLUGE 1984
Coluber constrictor flaviventris — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 335
Coluber constrictor flaviventris — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber constrictor flaviventris — BARTS 2006

Coluber constrictor foxii (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Coluber constrictor foxii — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 328
Coluber constrictor foxii — CROTHER et al. 2012

Coluber constrictor helvigularis AUFFENBERG, 1955
Coluber constrictor helvigularis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 330
Coluber constrictor helvigularis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Coluber constrictor latrunculus WILSON, 1970
Coluber constrictor latrunculus WILSON 1970: 78
Coluber constrictor latrunculus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 331
Coluber constrictor latrunculus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Coluber constrictor mormon (BAIRD & GIRARD 1852)
Coluber mormon BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Coluber constrictor mormon — FITCH 1936
Coluber mormon — FITCH 1981
Coluber constrictor mormon — GREENE 1983
Coluber constrictor mormon — STEBBINS 1985: 180
Coluber mormon — COLLINS 1991
Coluber mormon — LINER 1994
Coluber constrictor mormon — CROTHER 2000: 58
Coluber constrictor mormon — BOL 2007
Coluber constrictor mormon — CROTHER et al. 2012

Coluber constrictor oaxaca (JAN, 1863: 63)
Coluber constrictor oaxaca — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 337
Coluber constrictor oaxaca — BRYSON & LAZCANO 2005
Coluber constrictor oaxaca — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Coluber constrictor paludicola AUFFENBERG & BABITT, 1955
Coluber constrictor paludicola — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 329
Coluber constrictor paludicola — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber constrictor paludicola — GOMARD 2014

Coluber constrictor priapus DUNN & WOOD, 1939
Coluber constrictor latrunculus — WILSON 1970: 79
Coluber constrictor priapus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 326
Coluber constrictor priapus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber constrictor priapus — MAYS et al. 2017 
DistributionS Canada (incl. Saskatchewan)
USA (Washington, Oregon, California, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, Idaho, Utah, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, S New Hampshire, S Vermont, S Maine; Tennessee [latrunculus: HR 31: 54])
E/SE Mexico (Yucatan, Durango, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo), Belize, N Guatemala

constrictor: S Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, N Georgia, Rhode Island, Connecticut, NE Alabama.

anthicus: S Arkansas, Louisiana, E Texas. Type locality: “Siam (?)” (apparently in error), designated as “Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana” by Schmidt 1955.

etheridgei: WC Louisiana, adjacent Texas. Type locality: “Dallardville, 11 miles north of the junction of Texas highways 1276 and 943, Pok County, Texas”

flaviventris: Montana, W North Dakota, east to Iowa and south to Texas, SW Louisiana; Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Michigan, Wisconsin, Oklahoma; isolated populations in New Mexico and Texas. Type locality: stone quarry on west side of Missouri River, 3 miles above Boyer’s River, Pottawattamie County, Iowa (Schmidt 1953).

foxii: S Ontario, NW Ohio to E Iowa and SE Minnesota; Wisconsin; an isolated population in Menominee Co., Michigan (intergrades with flaviventris).

helvigularis: Lower Chipola and Apalachicola R. valleys in Florida panhandle and adjacent Georgia.

latrunculus: SE Louisiana north along the east side of the Mississippi to N Missouri. Type locality: “St. James, St. James Parish, Louisiana”

mormon: Canada (British Columbia), USA (Oregon, California), Mexico

oaxacae: S Texas and Tamaulipas to C Veracruz; isolated records in Nuevo León, Coahuila, Durango, Colima, Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Guatemala. Type locality: “Mexico”. Seems to intergrade with flaviventris in New Mexico and Texas.

ortenburgeri: Guatemala; Type locality: El Petén, Kalto SAbana, 4.8 km W La Libertad.

paludicola: Everglades, SE Florida, upper Florida Keys, E Florida.

priapus: SE states and north and west in Mississippi valley to S Indiana and SE Oklahoma, Lower Florida Keys, E Texas, Arkansas; Type locality: Florida, West Palm Beach. Type locality: West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida.

Type locality: “Canada”  
TypesType: NRM (= NHRM) (Stockholm) (see Andersson 1899: 35)
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 5367-68 [anthicum]
Holotype: ANSP 16111 [priapus]
Holotype: UMMZ [ortenburgeri]
Holotype: USNM [paludicola]
Holotype: probably none designated fide Wilson 1970 [flaviventris]
Holotype: LSUMZ 16462, paratypes: LSUMZ [etheridgei]
Holotype: LSUMZ 19283 [latrunculus]
Cotypes: USNM 4445 (2) [foxii]
Holotype: USNM 2012 [mormon]
Syntypes: ANSP 5367-5368 (Malnate 1971), erroneously stated to be in USNM by Cope (1900), collector and date of collection unknown [anthicus]
Holotype: LSUMZ 16462 (Louisiana State Univ. Mus. Zool.), adult male, collected by L. D. Wilson, 30 April 1967 [etheridgei]
Syntypes: unlocated fide Wilson 1978, collected by T. Say on 12 December 1819. [flaviventris]
Holotype: CM 21462 (= Carnegie Mus.), adult female, collected by Coleman J. Goin, 9 April 1942 [helvigularis]
Holotype: LSUMZ 19283, adult female, collected by Claude Gravois, 30 April 1967 [latrunculus]
Holotype: MNHN 7378, adult male, collected by Ghuisbreght, date of collection unknown [oaxaca] 
CommentType species: Coluber Constrictor LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Coluber LINNAEUS 1758.

Subspecies: following Bound et al. (2012) in the SSAR name list.

Joe Collins made the following comments on the new paper by Burbrink et al. (2008):
Using mtDNA, Burbrink et al. (2008) identified six lineages of Coluber constrictor in this excellent paper, but did not name them as distinct species, presumably until future results of nucleic DNA evidence along with southwestern U.S. and Mexican samples are assessed and integrated into the analysis. However, based on known type localities (as they appear in Auffenberg, 1955, Stejneger and Barbour, 1943, Schmidt, 1953, and Wilson, 1970) for already described, published, and available names, minimally the following distinct species (see Figure 1 on page 275 in Burbrink et al. for lineage designations) might be recognized in the future:

Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758 (Eastern lineage of Burbrink et al. 2008)
Type locality: vicinity of Philadelphia (see Dunn & Wood, 1939)
Standard common name would remain: Eastern Racer

Coluber priapus Dunn & Wood, 1939 (Peninsular Florida lineage of Burbrink et al. 2008)
Type locality: West Palm Beach, Florida
Standard common name would become: Florida Racer
Synonyms: Coluber haasti Bell, 1952, Coluber c. paludicolus Auffenberg & Babbitt, 1953

Coluber helvigularis Auffenberg, 1955 (Florida Panhandle lineage of Burbrink et al. 2008)
Type locality: Gulf County, Florida
Standard common name would remain: Brownchin Racer

Coluber flaviventris Say, 1823 (Central lineage of Burbrink et al. 2008)
Type locality: Pottawattamie County, Iowa
Standard common name would probably become: Prairie Racer, Plains Racer, or Midland Racer
Synonyms: Coluber anthicus (Cope 1862), Coluber c. etheridgei Wilson, 1970, Coluber c. foxii (Baird & Girard, 1853), Coluber c. latrunculus Wilson, 1970

Coluber mormon Baird & Girard, 1852 (Western lineage of Burbrink et al. 2008)
Type locality: Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Utah
Standard common name would remain: Western Racer
Synonym: Coluber vetustus (Baird & Girard, 1853)
Possible synonyms: Coluber oaxaca Jan, 1863, Coluber stejnegerianus (Cope, 1895)

Collins was unable to clearly identify a name for the Gulf Coast lineage of Burbrink et al. (2008); it may require a new specific epithet. The western border of this lineage is the Mississippi River. The type locality of Coluber c. latrunculus Wilson, 1970 is St. James Parish, Louisiana (west of the Mississippi River) and very close to the range of the Gulf Coast lineage of Burbrink et al. (2008); additional sampling may demonstrate that the name C. c. latrunculus applies to it.

The above list of name combinations is presented here merely as advance information of possible future changes in the taxonomy of the polytypic North American Racers (genus Coluber). Under no circumstances should the above list be adopted as a taxonomy for the group (except for recognition of C. mormon as a distinct species, an arrangement already well-documented long ago by Fitch et al., 1981, and Collins, 1991). Additional work on the systematics of this serpent remains to be done. 
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