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Coluber flagellum SHAW, 1802

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesColuber flagellum cingulum LOWE & WOODIN 1954
Coluber flagellum flagellum SHAW 1802
Coluber flagellum lineatulus SMITH 1941
Coluber flagellum piceus (COPE 1892)
Coluber flagellum ruddocki BRATTSTROM & WARREN 1953
Coluber flagellum testaceus SAY 1823 
Common NamesE: Coachwhip
flagellum: Eastern Coachwhip
cingulum: Sonoran Coachwhip
lineatulus: Lined Coachwhip
piceus: Red Coachwhip
ruddocki: San Joaquin Coachwhip
testaceus: Western Coachwhip
G: Kutscherpeitschen-Natter 
SynonymColuber Flagellum SHAW 1802: 475
Psammophis flavigularis HALLOWELL 1852: 178
Herpetodryas flagelliformis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 210
Coluber constrictor var. flagelliformis — GARMAN 1884: 42
Zamenis flagelliformis — BOULENGER 1893: 389
Bascanion flagellum frenatum STEJNEGER 1893: 208
Bascanion flagellum — LOENNBERG 1894
Bascanion flagellum frenatum — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 147
Zamenis flagellum var. frenatum — MOCQUARD 1899: 323
Coluber flagellum flagellum — BURT 1935
Coluber flagellum flavi-gularis — BURT 1935
Masticophis flagellum frenatum — TAYLOR 1938: 490
Coluber flagellum flavigularis — FUGLER 1956
Masticophis flagellum — STEBBINS 1985: 181
Masticophis flagellum flagellum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 186
Masticophis flagellum — LINER 1994
Coluber flagellum — UTIGER et al. 2005 (by implication)
Coluber flagellum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Masticophis flagellum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 418
Masticophis flagellum — O’CONNELL et al. 2017

Coluber flagellum flagellum SHAW 1802
Coluber flagellum flagellum — ALLEN 1932
Masticophis flagellum flagellum — CROTHER 2000: 65
Masticophis flagellum flagellum — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 313
Masticophis flagellum flagellum — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum flagellum

Coluber flagellum cingulum (LOWE & WOODIN 1954)
Masticophis flagellum cingulum LOWE & WOODIN 1954: 247
Masticophis flagellum cingulum — CROTHER 2000: 65
Coluber flagellum cingulum — LINER 2007
Masticophis flagellum cingulum — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum cingulum — CROTHER et al. 2012

Coluber flagellum lineatulus SMITH 1941: 394
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus SMITH 1941
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945: 95
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus — WEBB 1984
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus — TANNER 1985: 636
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus — CROTHER 2000: 65
Coluber flagellum lineatulus — LINER 2007
Masticophis flagellum lineatulus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum lineatulus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Coluber flagellum piceus (COPE 1892)
Bascanion piceum COPE 1892: 625
Bascanion flagellum frenatum STEJNEGER 1893
Bascanion piceum — VAN DENBURGH 1896
Masticophis flagellum piceus — TANNER 1927: 57
Masticophis piceus — ORTENBURGER 1928
Masticophis piceus — TAYLOR 1938: 490
Coluber flagellum piceus — KLAUBER 1942: 88
Masticophis flagellum piceus — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Masticophis flagellum piceus — CROTHER 2000: 66
Coluber flagellum piceus — LINER 2007
Masticophis flagellum piceus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum piceus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Coluber flagellum ruddocki BRATTSTROM & WARREN 1953
Masticophis flagellum ruddocki BRATTSTROM & WARREN 1953
Masticophis flagellum ruddocki — CROTHER 2000: 66
Masticophis flagellum ruddocki — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum ruddocki — CROTHER et al. 2012
Masticophis flagellum ruddocki — THOMSON et al. 2016

Coluber flagellum testaceus SAY 1823
Coluber testaceus SAY 1823: 48
Coluber constrictor var. testaceus — GARMAN 1884: 43
Bascanium flagelliforme testaceum — COPE 1886: 284
Bascanicum flagelliforme testaceum — COPE 1893: 387
Masticophis flngellum testaceus — SMITH 1944
Masticophis flagellum testaceus — STEBBINS 1985: 182
Masticophis flagellum testaceus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 187
Masticophis flagellum testaceus — CROTHER 2000: 66
Masticophis flagellum testaceus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 315
Coluber flagellum testaceus — LINER 2007
Masticophis flagellum testaceus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber flagellum testaceus — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (California ?, S Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, SW Utah ?, SE Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Texas, SW Nebraska, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, SE North Carolina),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, NW Sinaloa, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Hidalgo, Guanajuato)

cingulum: Mexico (Sonora), USA (S Arizona); Type locality, Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico, ca. 2000 ft.

flagellum: USA (E Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana). Type locality: "Carolina and Virginia," restricted to Charleston, South Carolina (Schmidt, 1953).

lineatulus: Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas); Type locality: 11 mi N San Buena Ventura, Chihuahua, Mexico.

piceus: USA (Nevada, S California, Arizona, S Utah). Type locality: Camp Grant (= Fort Grant), Graham County, Arizona.

ruddocki: USA (California: San Joaquin Valley); type locality: 1/4 mile south of ridge at Wheeler Ridge and 1.5 miles west of US highway 99, Kern County, California.

testaceus: USA (Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma); Mexico (Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, NE Sonora, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Chihuahua) (HR 33: 68); Type locality: headwaters of Arkansas River near the Rocky Mountains =junction of Turkey Creek with the Arkansas River, 12 mi W Pueblo, Pueblo County, Colorado. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: not designated (according to WILSON 1973)
Holotype, USNM 7891, skin of adult female (?) , collected by E. Palmer, no date [piceus]
Holotype, U. S. Natl. Mus. 105292, adult female, collected by H. M. Smith, 22 October 1938 [lineatulus]
Holotype: University of California at Los Angeles 6108 (now in collection of Museum of Vertebrate Zoology), adult male, collected by J. W. Warren, 12 April 1953; also reported as CAS 91204 [ruddocki]
Holotype: University of Arizona 672, adult male, collected by A. W. Ruff, summer 1951 [cingulum]
Holotype: lost, fide WILSON 1973 [testaceus]
Syntypes: (2) 5387-88, frontiers of Texas to Creek Territory; [Psammophis flavigularis] 
CommentSynonymy: Masticophis f. fuliginosus is now considered as a full species according to GRISMER (1994). Previously it had been synonymized with M. f. piceus. C. flagellum as non-monophyletic with respect to M. bilineatus and other populations of Coluber (Masticophis) (O’Connell et al. 2017).

Subspecies: ruddocki is a consistely light yellow racer lacking the dark head and neck bands of the red forms of M. f. piceus. 
EtymologyThe specific name flagellum is the diminutive of the Latin word flagrum, meaning "whip or lash," also in reference to the color pattern of the tail. 
References
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