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Coniophanes fissidens (GÜNTHER, 1858)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesConiophanes fissidens convergens SHANNON & SMITH 1950
Coniophanes fissidens dispersus SMITH 1941
Coniophanes fissidens fissidens (GÜNTHER 1858)
Coniophanes fissidens proterops (COPE 1860)
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis (COPE 1860) 
Common NamesYellowbelly Snake 
SynonymCoronella fissidens GÜNTHER 1858: 36
Coniophanes fissidens — COPE 1860: 248
Tachymenis fissidens — GARMAN 1884: 62
Erythrolamprus fissidens — ANDERSSON 1901: 23
Coniophanes fissidens obsoletus MINTON et al. 1960
Coniophanes fissidens — VILLA et al. 1988
Coniophanes fissidens — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 67
Coniophanes fissidens — LINER 1994
Coniophanes fissidens — SAVAGE 2002
Coniophanes fissidens — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015
Coniophanes fissidens — WALLACH et al. 2014: 176

Coniophanes fissidens convergens SHANNON & SMITH 1950
Coniophanes fissidens convergens — LINER 2007

Coniophanes fissidens dispersus SMITH 1941
Coniophanes fissidens dispersus SMITH 1941: 106
Coniophanes fissidens dispersus — LINER 2007

Coniophanes fissidens fissidens (GÜNTHER 1858)
Coronella fissidens GÜNTHER 1858: 36
Coniophanes fissidens fissidens — BAILEY 1939: 14
Coniophanes fissidens fissidens — LINER 2007

Coniophanes fissidens proterops (COPE 1860)
C[oniophanes] proterops COPE 1860: 249
Tachymenis proterops — GARMAN 1884: 62
Coniphanes fissidens proterops — TAYLOR 1949: 210
Coniophanes fissidens proterops — LINER 2007

Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis (COPE 1860)
Coniophanes punctigularis COPE 1860: 248
Dromicus chitalonensis MÜLLER 1878: 407
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis — SMITH 1941: 107
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis — MERTENS 1952: 60
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis — LIVEZEY & PECKHAM 1953
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 67
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis — LINER 2007 
DistributionMexico (Veracruz, Puebla, Chiapas, Quéretaro, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, NW Ecuador, Peru, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]; elevation (Honduras): 800-990 m

dispersus: Mexico (Guerrero, Michoacan, probably Nayarit to Oaxaca); Type locality: El Limoncito, Guerrero.

convergens: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: Mexico: 6 mi NW Tihuatlan, near Castillo de Teayo, Veracruz; W.L. Burger; April 20, 1949.

obsoletus: Costa Rica; Type locality: Costa Rica: 1 mi E Volcan de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas; Sherman A. Minton, Jr.; July 22, 1957.

proterops: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: vicinity of Jalapa, Veracruz.

punctigularis: Mexico (Chiapas, isthmus of Tehuantepec), Guatemala, to Honduras; Type locality: Honduras.

Type locality: “Mexico”.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.1.9.61; BMNH 1946.1.3.2-3 (Coniophanes fissidens proterops - Two of the types of C. fissidens)
Holotype: ANSP 3742 [punctigularis]
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 3821 [convergens]
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 46573 [obsoletus]
Holotype: USNM 5285 [proterops]
Holotype: FMNH 100130 [dispersus] 
CommentRelative abundance in Honduras: infrequent

Distribution: this species has been reported from Peru, but without specific locality (T. Doan, pers. comm. 30 Apr 2012). Not in Yucatan state (Mexico), fide Gonzalez-Sanchez et al. 2017. Not in Nayarit fide WOOLRICH-PIÑA et al. 2016 (who only report C. lateritius).

Type species: Coronella fissidens GÜNTHER 1858 is the type species of the genus Coniophanes HALLOWELL inCOPE 1860: 248.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 rejected the subgeneric names Cottonserpens Hoser 2012, Daraninserpens Hoser 2012, Laidlawserpens Hoser 2012, Smythserpens Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Coniophanes. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from the Greek words konio, meaning "dust" and phano, meaning "appearance." The specific name is derived from the Latin words fissus, a suffix denoting a division into two parts, and dens, meaning "tooth" (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013). 
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