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Coniophanes schmidti BAILEY, 1937

IUCN Red List - Coniophanes schmidti - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Faded Black-striped Snake
S: Rayada de Schmidt 
SynonymConiophanes schmidti BAILEY 1937
Coniophanes schmidti — MCCOY 1969
Coniophanes schmidti — LINER 1994
Coniophanes schmidti — LINER 2007
Coniophanes schmidti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 178
Coniophanes schmidti — PALACIOS-AGUILAR & FLORES-VILLELA 2020 
DistributionMexico (Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche, Quintana Roo), Belize, Guatemala

Type locality: Chichen Itza, Yucatan.  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 73043, adult male, collected June 30,1932, by Edwin Creaser. 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS. “A Coniophanes with 23-25 dorsal scale rows, differing from piceivittis in having a narrower lateral dark stripe, 0.5-1.5 rows wide, which gradually becomes lighter toward the ventrals, and in having a higher number of caudals.” (Bailey 1937)

DESCRIPTION OF HOLOTYPE. “Dorsal scale rows 23-25-19, reducing by loss of the paravertebral rows opposite ventrals 101, 116, and 141 respectively ; keeled at the anal region, lateral rows most strongly so, and with a further tendency toward keel ing where reduction takes place. Ventrals, 170; subcaudals, 101 pairs. Upper labials, 8, 4 and 5 in eye; lower labials, 10, 6 in contact with chin shields; oculars, 2-2, including a small subpreocular; temporals, 1-2-3; nasal semidivided; loreal broader than high; frontal once and a half as long as broad. Head brown, labials shaded with light brown. A light stripe from snout through the top of the eye extends backward to a point slightly behind the parietals (less distinct anterior to eye). This stripe continues as a dorsolateral light line 14 scales wide after interruption for the space of about 1 scale on the neck. A broad dorsal black band is 5% scales wide at midbody. The half row (lower half of eighth row) below the dorsolateral light lines is black like the dorsal band, becoming gradually lighter ventrally. Chin and throat dotted with dark, ventral surface immaculate yellow. Hemipenis with forked suleus, longitudinal laminae basally followed by numerous small spines, and a slightly bifurcate capitate tip. Maxillary teeth about 9, followed by a gap and 2 enlarged grooved fangs. Body, 372; tail, 175.” (Bailey 1937)

VARIATIONS. “The 2 specimens of piceivittis recorded by Boulenger? seem to be referable to schmidti, according to data generously taken for me recently by Roger Conant. The counts for these specimens are included in the statement of variation, which may be summarized as follows: dorsals, 21-23-19 to 25 19 ; ventrals, 158-174; caudals, male, 91-115, female, 87-103; width of lateral black stripe, ½-14 scales; tail length/body length, male, 42.6-51.3 per cent, female, 36.3-46.7 per cent. The lowest ventral count for each sex is from a specimen from Petén, and the Petén female has the lowest caudal count. The tail of the Petén male is incomplete.” (Bailey 1937) 
CommentWilson & Meyer 1985 speculate that this might be a subspecies of C. piceivittis.

Distribution: see map in Palacios-Aguilar & Flores-Villela 2020: 119 (Fig. 6). 
EtymologyNamed after Karl Patterson Schmidt (1890-1957), American herpetologist (see Davis 1957 and RESETAR & VORIS 1997 for biographical notes). 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Bailey, J. R. 1937. New forms of Coniophanes Hallowell, and the status of Dromicus clavatus. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 362: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Bailey, J. R. 1939. A systematic study of the snakes of the genus Coniophanes. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 24 [1938]: 1-48. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Colston, Timothy J.; José António L. Barão-Nóbrega, Ryan Manders, Alice Lett, Jamie Wilmott, Gavin Cameron, Sidony Hunter, Adam Radage, Etienne Littlefair, Robert J. Williams, Antonio Lopez Cen, Kathy Slater 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, México, with new records. Check List 11 (5): 1759 - get paper here
  • Davis, D.D. 1959. Karl Patterson Schmidt, 1890-1957. Copeia 1959 (3): 189-192 - get paper here
  • FINNERTY, JOHN R.; KARINA SCAVO LORD, TINA BARBASCH, RUSSELL LAMAN, LARA HAKAM, RAZIEL PEREZ, HEATHER JENKINS, BRAD J. FORTUNATO, CLINT LOCKWOOD, DAVID BIANCO-CARON & NATHAN L. STEWART. 2021. First report of the Southern Gulf Coast Toad (Incilius valliceps Wiegmann), Common House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron), Schmidt’s Black-Striped Snake (Coniophanes schmidti Bailey), and Cozumel Whiptail (Aspidoscelis cozumela Gadow) Caribbean Herpetology 81: 1–14. - get paper here
  • González-Sánchez, V. H., J. D. Johnson, E. García-Padilla, V. Mata-Silva, D. L. DeSantis and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The Herpetofauna of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 264–380 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther; J. Rogelio Cedeño-Vázquez, Akary Myat Tun, and Pablo M. Beutelspacher-García 2017. The Chetumal Snake Census: generating biological data from road-killed snakes. Part 4. Coniophanes imperialis, C. meridanus, and C. schmidti. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 528–542 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Mahrdt, C. R. 1969. First record of the snake Coniophanes schmidti from the state of Chiapas, México. Herpetologica 25: 125. - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J. 1969. Snakes of the genus Coniophanes (Colubridae) from the Yucatan Peninsula, México. Copeia 1969 (4): 847-849 - get paper here
  • McCOY, C. J., CENSKY, E. J., & VAN DE VENDER, R. R. 1986. Distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in Belize, Central America. Herpetological Review 17:28-29. - get paper here
  • Nahuat-Cervera, P E; Cedeño-Vázquez, J R & Beutelspacher-Garcìa, P M; 2019. Coniophanes schmidti (Schmidt’s Black-striped Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 152-153 - get paper here
  • Nahuat-Cervera, Pedro Enrique 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hobonil Educative Center, Tzucacab, Yucatán, Mexico. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 53-65 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo; Oscar Flores-Villela 2020. Taxonomic revision and comments on two groups of the genus Coniophanes (Squamata: Dipsadidae). Vertebrate Zoology 70 (2): 111–124 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G., Thomas R. Rainwater, Jan C. Meerman and Stanlee M. Miller. 2016. Nature Notes. Notes on the diet, foraging behavior, and venom of some snakes in Belize. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 162–170 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, L. D., & MEYER, J. R. 1985. The Snakes of Honduras. 2d ed. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Publ., Biol. & Geol. No. 6, 150 pp.
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