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Conophis lineatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Conophis lineatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesConophis lineatus concolor (COPE 1867)
Conophis lineatus lineatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854) 
Common NamesE: Road Guarder
G: Streifennatter 
SynonymLygophis lineatus LINNAEUS 1758
Tomodon lineatum DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 936
Conophis pulcher COPE 1869: 308
Conophis lineatus — COPE 1871: 8
Tachymenis lineata — GARMAN 1884: 60
Conophis pulcher var. similis BOCOURT 1886: 647
Liophis decoratus - DITMARS 1934 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Conophis concolor - SCHMIDT & ANDREWS 1936 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Lygophis lineatus — DUNN 1940
Conophis pulcher plagosus SMITH 1941: 121
Conophis lineatus similis SMITH 1941: 123 (preoccupied by BOCOURT 1886)
Conophis lineatus dunni SMITH 1942: 395 (nom. subst.)
Conophis pulcher plagosus — MERTENS 1952: 62
Conophis nevermanni - TAYLOR 1955 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Conophis lineatus dunni — NEILL & ALLEN 1959: 56
Conophis lineatus — WELLMAN 1963: 262
Conophis lineatus dunni — WELLMAN 1963: 262
Conophis lineatus dunni — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 70
Conophis lineatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 69
Conophis pulcher — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 70
Conophis pulcher - VILLA et al. 1988
Conophis lineatus - WILSON & MEYER (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Conophis pulcher — LINER 1994
Conophis lineatus — LINER 1994
Conophis lineatus — SAVAGE 2002
Conophis lineatus — KÖHLER 2008: 212
Conophis lineata — LEMOS-ESPINAL & SMITH 2015
Conophis lineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 180

Conophis lineatus concolor COPE 1867
Conophis concolor COPE 1867: 318
Conophis lineaticeps COPE 1900: 1094
Conophis lineatus concolor — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 153
Conophis concolor — SCHMIDT & ANDREWS 1936
Conophis concolor — SMITH 1939
Conophis lineatus concolor — SMITH 1941: 122
Conophis lineatus concolor — WELLMAN 1963: 270
Conophis lineatus concolor — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 70
Conophis concolor — PEREZ-HIGAREDA et al. 2002 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, Yucatan, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Hidalgo, Tabasco [HR 35: 82]), Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica [Villa et al.] El Salvador ?, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], refuted by AUTH et al. 1998, who states that Liophis lineatus has been misidentified as Conophis.

Type locality: Mexico.

concolor: Mexico; Type locality: Yucatan, Mexico.

pulcher: Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN
Holotype: USNM 12368 [concolor]
Syntypes: USNM 6751, 6803 [pulcher] 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Neither Köhler 2008 nor Wallach et al. 2014 recognize C. (l.) concolor and the latter synonymizes C. l. dunni with lineatus.

Mildly venomous (J.D. Goodman, pers. comm.)

Distribution: Not listed in Liner 2007 for Mexico. Not in Panama fide S. LOTZKAT (pers. comm., 23 Dec 2015). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line.
C. pulcher has been named after Latin “pulcher” = beautiful, handsome, fine, fair. 
References
  • Alvarez DEL TORO, M. 1982. Los Reptiles de Chiapas. 3rd ed. México: Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 248 pp.
  • Auth, David L; Mariaux, Jean; Clary, Joel; Chiszar, David; van Breukelen, Frank; Smith, Hobart M 1998. The report of the snake genus Conophis in South America is erroneous. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 34 (4): 107-112
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. F. 1886. In A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Vol. 3 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Conant, R. 1965. Miscellaneous notes and comments on toads, lizards and snakes from México. American Museum Novitates 2205: 1-38 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. Fifth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18 [1866]: 317-323 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. Sixth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 305-313 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Dunn,E.R. 1940. New and noteworthy herpetological material from Panamá. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 92: 105-122. - get paper here
  • Gaige,H. 1936. Some reptiles and amphibians from Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., (457): 289-304.
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Gómez-de Regil, G. M., and J. A. Escalante-Pasos. 2017. Conophis lineatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) Diet. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 180–181 - get paper here
  • González-Sánchez, V. H., J. D. Johnson, E. García-Padilla, V. Mata-Silva, D. L. DeSantis and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The Herpetofauna of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 264–380 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Neill, Wilfred T. and E. Ross Allen. 1959. Studies on the amphibians and reptiles of British Honduras. Publications of the Research Division Ross Allen's Reptiles Institute. 2 (1): 1-76
  • Pérez-santos, C. E. 1986. Zoogeografía de los Ophidia en Colombia. Univ. Complutense, Madrid, 2 vols., 971 pp.
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Savage, Jay M. 1949. Notes on a Central American snake, Conophis lineatus dunni Smith, with a record from Honduras. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 52 (4): 483-486 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P, & ANDREWS, E. W. 1936. Notes on snakes from Yucatán. Field Mus. Nat Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 167-187. - get paper here
  • Scott Jr., N.J. & Limerick, S. 1983. Reptiles and Amhibians. In: Janzen, D.H. (ed.) Costa Rican Natural History. Univeristy of Chicago Press, pp. 351-
  • Smith 1941. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 31: 121
  • Smith, Hobart 1942. Mexican herpetological miscellany. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 92 (3153): 349-395 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1939. Notes on Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 24 (4): 15-35 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, Alejandro and Boabdil Mora Artavia. 2015. Conophis lineatus. Arboreal Behavior. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 119–121 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1955. Additions to the known herpetological fauna of Costa Rica with comments on other species. No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37: 499-575. - get paper here
  • Vences M., Franzen M., Flaschendräger A., Schmitt R. & Regös J. 1998. Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna von Nicaragua: kommentierte Artenliste der Reptilien. Salamandra 34 (1): 17-42 - get paper here
  • Villa, J., Wilson, L.D., Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology - A Bibliographic Checklist. University of Missouri Press
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wellman, J. 1963. A revision of the snakes of the genus Conophis. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 251-295. - get paper here
 
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