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Crisantophis nevermanni (DUNN, 1937)

IUCN Red List - Crisantophis nevermanni - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Dunn's Road Guarder
G: Nevermanns Natter 
SynonymConophis nevermanni DUNN 1937: 214
Conophis nevermanni — WELLMAN 1963: 272
Conophis nevermanni — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 70
Crisantophis nevermanni — VILLA 1971
Crisantophis nevermanni — VILLA et al. 1988
Crisantophis nevermanni — SAVAGE 2002
Crisantophis nevermanni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189 
DistributionGuatemala, W Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica

Type locality: Rio Poas de Aserri (a few miles south of San Jose).  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 22423; Dunn mentions “A female in my own collection, obtained from Prof. Manuel Valerio.” 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): This monotypic genus was long confused with Conophis, from which it differs primarily in dentition, vertebrae, hemipenes, rostral morphology, and coloration. Members of Crisantophis are generalized colubrids and have the basic colubrid complement of head shields. They may be characterized by the following combination of features: nasal divided; a loreal; one preocular; pupil round; two pairs of chin shields; dorsal scales smooth, without apical pits, in 19-19-17 rows; anal and subcaudals divided; maxillary teeth 13 to 15 plus two laterally compressed grooved fangs; a diastema; prediastemal and mandibular teeth increasing in size posteriorly; Duvernoy's gland present; hypapophyses present on posterior dorsal vertebrae. The combination of narrow light longitudinal stripes and black marks on the intersupralabial sutures immediately distinguishes them from other Costa Rican snakes (Savage 2002: 586).

DIAGNOSIS (species): The adult coloration of two to four conspicuous narrow light longitudinal stripes on the dark brown ground color, the black marking along the upper margins of the supralabials, and the presence of distinct dark spots on the tips of the ventrals are the principal identifying marks that will separate Crisantophis from other Costa Rican colubrids. Juveniles are pale with three to five dark stripes, have the upper portion of the supralabials dark, and have dark smudges on each ventral tip (Savage 2002: 586). 
CommentType species: Conophis nevermanni DUNN 1937: 214 is the type species of the genus Crisantophis VILLA 1971. 
EtymologyProbably named after Wilhelm Heinrich Ferdinand Nevermann (1881-1938), a friend of Dunn's. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1937. New or Unnamed Snakes from Costa RicaNew or Unnamed Snakes from Costa Rica. Copeia 1937 (4): 213- 215 - get paper here
  • Hidalgo, H. N. 1981. Additions to the snake fauna of El Salvador. Herpetological Review 12:67-68 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Villa,J. 1969. Notes on Conophis nevermanni, an addition lo the herpetofauna of Nicaragua. Journal of Herpetology 3:169-71. - get paper here
  • Villa,J. 1971. Crisantophis, a new genus for Conophis nevermanni Dunn. Journal of Herpetology 5 (3-4): 173-77. - get paper here
  • Villa,J. 1988. Crisantophis, C. nevermanni. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 429 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wellman, J. 1963. A revision of the snakes of the genus Conophis. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 251-295. - get paper here
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