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Crocodylus intermedius GRAVES, 1819

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus intermedius - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Common NamesE: Orinoco crocodile
G: Orinokokrokodil 
SynonymCrocodilus intermedius GRAVES 1819: 344
Crocodilus journei BORY 1824: 111 (nom. subst.)
Crocodilus Journei — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 129
Mecistops bathyrhynchus COPE 1861: 550
Crocodylus intermedius — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 142
Crocodylus intermedius — KING & BURKE 1989
Crocodylus intermedius — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 670
Crocodylus intermedius — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela, Lesser Antilles (Grenada),
Trinidad ?, Tobago ?

Type locality: unknown (fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977)  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 7512, mounted specimen but not indicated as type in MNHN catalogue - specimen originating from the Museum of Marseille (France) 
CommentSee also note on Crocodylus cataphractus.

Phylogeny: This and other New World crocodiles are closely related to African C. niloticus, indicating a recent (Miocine or Pliocene) cross-Atlantic dispersal (MEREDITH et al. 2011). 
  • Antelo, Rafael and Andy Moorwood. 2015. Crocodylus intermedius (Orinoco crocodile) parental behavior. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 206-207 - get paper here
  • Antelo, Rafael; Ayarzagüena, José; Castroviejo, Javier 2010. Reproductive ecology of Orinoco crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) in a newly established population at El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. The Herpetological Journal 20: 51-58 - get paper here
  • ANZOLA, LUIS FERNANDO & RAFAEL ANTELO 2015. First data of natural recovery of any Orinoco crocodile Crocodylus intermedius population: Evidence from nesting. Herpetological Bulletin (134) - get paper here
  • Barrio-Amorós, C.L. 2006. Crocodylus intermedius. Reptilia (GB) (49): 28-35 - get paper here
  • Brazaitis, P. 1971. Crocodylus intermedius Graves, a review of recent literature. Zoologica 56 (2):71-75 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Recent species of Emydosaurian reptiles represented in the Museum of the Academy. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia1860: 549-551 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Garcés-Restrepo, Mario Fernando; Antonio Castro, Manuel Merchán, Miguel Andrés Cárdenas- Torres, Fernando Gómez-Velasco 2014. Crocodylus intermedius (Graves 1819). Catálogo de Anfibios y Reptiles de Colombia 2 (1): 5-10 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Graves, M. L. 1819. Sur deux nouvelles espèces de crocodile. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 2: 343-353.
  • Lutkin, C. 1888. Herpetologiske Bidrag I Om Crocodylus intermedius ag om en af Underslaegterne af Alligator-Slaegten. Vidensk. Meddel nat. For. Kjobenhaven 1884-1888: 61-80 - get paper here
  • Medem, F. 1976. Das Orinoko Korokodil, Crocodylus intermedius , in Kolumbien: Studien uber seine Naturgeschichte und Verbreitung. Natur und Museum 106 (8): 237-244
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Meredith, Robert W.; Evon R. Hekkala b, George Amato c, John Gatesy 2011. A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 183–191 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conservation Genetics. 10:935–954 - get paper here
  • Muñoz, M. del C. & J. Thorbjarnarson 2000. Movement of Captive-released Orinoco Crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Capanaparo River, Venezuela Journal of Herpetology 34 (3): 397-403. - get paper here
  • PAN, TAO; JIA-SHUN MIAO, HUA-BIN ZHANG, PENG YAN, PING-SHIN LEE, XIN-YUE JIANG, JIA-HUI OUYANG, YOU-PENG DENG, BAO-WEI ZHANG & XIAO-BING WU. 2021. Near-complete phylogeny of extant Crocodylia (Reptilia) using mitogenome-based data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 191(4): 1075–1089. - get paper here
  • Parra-Torres, Felipe; Rafael A. Moreno-Arias, and Olga l. Montenegro 2020. Evaluation of Crocodilian Populations along the Bita River (Vichada, Colombia). Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 15 (2): - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40 - get paper here
  • Posso-Peláez, Carolina; Carolina Ibáñez, and Paul Bloor 2018. Low Mitochondrial DNA Variability in the Captive Breeding Population of the Critically Endangered Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) from Colombia. Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (2): 347–354 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Seijas Y., Andrés E. 2016. Regional differences in growth rates of Orinoco crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) from the Venezuelan Llanos. The Herpetological Journal 26 (4): 263-269 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Threatened crocodiles in European zoos? Reptilia (GB) ?: 12-17 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Bedrohte Krokodile in Europas zoologischen Gärten? Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 24-29 - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. & G. Hernández 1993. Reproductive Ecology of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in Venezuela. II. Reproductive and Social Behavior Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 371-379. - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B. & G. Hernández 1993. Reproductive Ecology of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in Venezuela. I. Nesting Ecology and Egg and Clutch Relationships Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 363-370. - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B.;Hernandez, G. 1992. Recent investigations of the status and distribution of the Orinoco crocodile Crocodylus intermedius in Venezuela. Biol. Cons. 62: 179-188 - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson,J.B. and R. Franz 1987. Crocodylus intermedius. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (406. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
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