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Crocodylus niloticus LAURENTI, 1768

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
SubspeciesCrocodylus niloticus niloticus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus africanus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus chamses BORY DE SAINT VINCENT 1824
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei (SMITH in HEWITT 1937)
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus DERANIYAGALA 1948 
Common NamesE: Nile crocodile
G: Nilkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus niloticus LAURENTI 1768: 53
Crocodylus niloticus — MEYER 1795:19
Lacerta crocodila — SHAW & NODDER 1800: plate 428
Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807: 40
Crocodilus multiscutatus RÜPPELL in CRETZSCHMAR 1826: 99
Crocodilus marginatus GEOFFROY 1827: 260
Crocodilus vulgaris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 104
Crocodilus vulgaris — BAIKIE 1857: 378 (?)
Crocodilus vulgaris — MURRAY 1863
Crocodilus madagascariensis GRANDIDIER 1872 (nom. nud.)
Crocodilus vulgaris var. madagascariensis BOETTGER 1877
Crocodilus vulgaris — FISCHER 1884: 18
Crocodylus niloticus — SCHMIDT 1919: 419
Champse vulgaris — MONARD 1940: 179
Crocodylus niloticus — AUERBACH 1987: 78
Crocodylus niloticus — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 230
Crocodylus niloticus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Crocodylus niloticus madagascariensis — HEKKALA et al. 2011
Crocodylus niloticus — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 329

Crocodylus niloticus africanus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus africanus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus africanus — FUCHS 1974: 140
Crocodylus niloticus africanus — FUCHS et al. 1974: 111

Crocodylus niloticus chamses BORY DE SAINT VINCENT 1824
Crocodilus chamses BORY DE SAINT VINCENT 1824: 105
Crocodylus niloticus chamses — FUCHS et al. 1974: 111
Crocodylus niloticus chamses — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 144

Crocodylus niloticus cowiei (SMITH in HEWITT 1937)
Alligator cowiei SMITH in HEWITT 1937: 2
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei — FUCHS et al. 1974
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 144

Crocodylus niloticus niloticus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus LAURENTI 1768: 53
Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807: 40
Crocodilus multiscutatus RÜPPELL in CRETZSCHMAR 1826: 99
Crocodilus marginatus GEOFFROY 1827: 260
Crocodilus lacunosus GEOFFROY 1827: 261
Crocodilus complanatus GEOFFROY 1827: 263
Crocodilus octophractus RÜPPELL in GRAY in GRIFFITH 1831: 22
Crocodilus hexaphractos RÜPPELL in SCHMIDT 1886 (nomen nudum)
Crocodylus niloticus niloticus — FUCHS 1974: 124
Crocodylus niloticus niloticus — FUCHS et al. 1974: 110

Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus DERANIYAGALA 1948: 31
Crocodylus.niloticus worthingtoni DERANIYAGALA 1948: 30 (nomen nudum)
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus DERANIYAGALA 1948: 31
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus — FUCHS et al. 1974: 113
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus — LANZA 1988 
DistributionAngola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Republic of Congo (Brazzaville), Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Nosy Faly, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape etc.), Sudan (Jumhūriyyat), Republic of South Sudan (RSS), Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

africanus: Tanzania, Ruanda, Burundi; Type locality: restricted to Tanzania fide Fuchs et al. 1974.

chamses: Uganda, SE Sudan (Jumhūriyyat), Republic of South Sudan (RSS), Democratic Republic of Congo (Katanga), Zaire, Gabon, Angola, N SW Africa und NE Zambia. Type locality: restricted to Congo River fide Fuchs et al. 1974.

cowiei: Mozambique, Botswana, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia (except North-East), South Africa; Type locality: South Africa (fide Fuchs et al. 1974)

madagascariensis: Madagascar; Type locality: Madagascar

pauciscutatus; Somalia (Shebelli and Juba rivers), Ethiopia, Kenya; Type locality: Lake Rudolf, East Africa

Type locality: India and Egypt; restricted by Fuchs et al. (1974) to "Ägypten" (= Egypt).  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (fide King & Burke 1989), lost fide Fuchs et al. 1974: 114.
Holotype: lost fide Fuchs et al. 1974: 114 [africanus]
Holotype: SMF 28161 [octophractus]
Holotype: NMSL (Colombo) fide DERANIYAGALA 1948 [pauciscutatus]
Holotype: SMF 28161 [multiscutatus]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 6498 (type status uncertain) [madagascariensis] 
CommentDistribution: Fairly recently extirpated from Israel, and less recently (beginning of the 19th century) from the Comoro islands. These latter extinctions were also due to an increase in aridification and thus a decrease in suitable habitat. Records for Seychelles are erroneous. These were demonstrated to be C. porosus (Gerlach & Canning 1996). Not in Benin fide ULLENBRUCH et al. 2010. See (crude) map of subspecies in Fuchs et al. 1974: 108. Reports from Comoro Islands are based on a single report from a beach, hence unconfirmed (Hawlitschek et al. 2011). Reports from the Seychelles represent C. porosus (F. Glaw, pers. comm., 31 July 2022, based on Gerlach & Canning 1994). Not in Equatorial Guinea fide SÁNCHEZ-VIALAS et al. 2022.

Subspecies after WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977. The “Smith” in Alligator cowiei SMITH in HEWITT 1937 was not identified by first name or any other information. C. n. madagascariensis doesn’t seem to be recognized by recent authors. Hekkala et al. 2011 mention it without further comment.

Taxonomy: Mitochondrial DNA analyses by SCHMITZ et al. (2003) consistently revealed two groups of C. niloticus, one consisting of the monophyletic West- and Central African populations and the other of a paraphyletic group containing the East African and Madagascan populations. High genetic divergence between those groups indicates separation on the species level. This was confirmed by Pan et al. 2021.

Behavior: Vergne and Mathevon (2008) present the first experimental evidence that pre-hatching calls of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) juveniles are informative acoustic signals which indeed target both siblings and mother.

Type species: Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807 is the type species of the genus Crocodylus LAURENTI 1768, which is the type genus of the family Crocodylidae Deraniagala, 1930 (often cited as coined by Oppel, 1811:21 who used Crocodilini as the first family-group name for crocodiles (Savage 2017).

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Oxycrocodylus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Crocodylus.

Hybridization: Crocodylus niloticus appears to hybridize with C. siamensis and C. porosus, at least in captivity (Wei et al. 2022). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality in Egypt, along the Nile.

The genus (and family) was named after Greek krokodeilus = kind of lizard, and/or Latin crocodilus = a crocodile. 
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