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Crotalus campbelli BRYSON JR, LINKEM, DORCAS, LATHROP, JONES, ALVARADO-DÍAZ,, GRÜNWALD & MURPHY, 2014

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCrotalus campbelli BRYSON JR, LINKEM, DORCAS, LATHROP, JONES, ALVARADO-DÍAZ,, GRÜNWALD & MURPHY 2014
Crotalus triseriatus — BOULENGER 1896: 581 (part).
Crotalus triseriatus armstrongi — DORCAS 1992: 87 (part)
Crotalus triseriatus armstrongi — BRYSON et al. 2011: 699 (in part)
Crotalus triseriatus armstrongi — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2009: 118 
DistributionMexico (W Jalisco, NW Colima), elevation up to 2515 m.

Type locality: Sierra de Cuale, 9 km N El Teosinte, municipality of Talpa de Allende, state of Jalisco, Mexico Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. KU 73649, Adult female, collected 25 October 1962 by Percy L. Clifton (field number PLC 3216).
Paratypes. 5 specimens. Mexico: JALISCO: same collection data as holotype (KU 73650). Las Playitas, Las Joyas, Sierra de Manantlán, municipality of Autlán de Navarro; collected September 1985 by E. Fanti-Echegoyen (UTA R-16352). Las Joyas, Sierra de Manantlán, municipality of Autlán de Navarro; collected September 1985 by E. Fanti-Echegoyen (UTA R-16353). ca. 25 km SE Autlán, ca. 2.1 km (by dirt road) SE Manantlán; collected 27 July 1975 by G. M. Tilger and R. G. Arndt (AMNH R-113191). Lago de Juanacatlán, Sierra de Mascota, municipality of Mascota (20°37'30.94"N, 104°43'36.30"W; 2009 m asl; WGS84); collected 10 April 2011 by R. W. Bryson Jr. and M. Torocco (MZFC 28669). 
CommentDiagnosis. Crotalus campbelli can be distinguished from all members of the C. triseriatus species group except C. armstrongi by the combination of the following characters: (1) presence of intercanthals, (2) infrequently divided upper preocular (9.1% of the time), (3) 150–154 ventrals in males, 147–152 in females, (4) 31–32 subcaudals in males, 22–26 in females, (5) small rattle (proximal rattle width 11.0–14.6% of head length), (6) long tail (9.1–11.0% of total body length in males, 7.5–8.9% in females), (7) pale interspaces between dorsal and lateral blotches, (8) heavy venter mottling, (9) dark proximal rattle and underside of tail, and (10) usually a single large anterior intercanthal. Crotalus campbelli can be distinguished from C. armstrongi based on higher mean number of ventrals (152 in males and 149 in females vs. 141 and 144), higher mean number of subcaudals in males (31 vs. 28), less frequently divided upper preocular (9.1% vs. 14.3%), proportionately longer tail in males (10.3% of total body length vs. 9.7%), smaller mean proximal rattle width (13.0% of head length vs. 14.0%), higher mean number of dorsal blotches (48 vs. 42), and higher number of tail bands (mode of 9 vs. 6).
Crotalus campbelli is most similar to members of the C. triseriatus group distributed along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, including C. pusillus, C. armstrongi, C. triseriatus, and C. tlaloci. Crotalus campbelli is distinguished from C. pusillus by possessing intercanthals and an infrequently divided upper preocular, from C. tlaloci by having an infrequently divided upper preocular, variable number of intercanthals, fewer ventrals (in females, 147–152 vs. 156–165; in males, mean number 152 vs. 156), lower mean number of subcaudals in females (24 vs. 28), proportionately shorter tail in females (8.2% of total length vs. 9.2%), and higher mean number of dorsal blotches (48 vs. 43), and from C. triseriatus by a higher number of ventrals (in males, 150–154 vs. 134–146; in females, mean number higher: 149 vs. 142), higher mean number of subcaudals in males (31 vs. 28), proportionately smaller proximal rattle (13.0% of head length vs. 15.8%), and by having pale interspaces between dorsal and lateral blotches. Crotalus campbelli is most similar in general appearance to C. armstrongi, but can be distinguished from this species by characters mentioned above. Half of the specimens of C. campbelli also possess a single, large anterior intercanthal. This scale arrangement is rarely seen in C. armstrongi and C. triseriatus. Crotalus campbelli is easily distinguished from C. ravus by the lack of large head plates in the parietal region. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a patronym honoring Jonathan A. Campbell for his many years of field research on Mexican rattlesnakes and for his decades of unwavering support to students of Mexican herpetology. 
References
  • BRYSON, ROBERT W.; JR., CHARLES W. LINKEM, MICHAEL E. DORCAS, AMY LATHROP, JASON M. JONES, JAVIER ALVARADO-DÍAZ, CHRISTOPH I. GRÜNWALD & ROBERT W. MURPHY 2014. Multilocus species delimitation in the Crotalus triseriatus species group (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 3826 (3): 475–496 - get paper here
  • Flores-Guerrero, Ubaldo Sebastián and Janin Sujey Sánchez-González. 2016. Crotalus campbelli Bryson Jr, Linkem, Dorcas, Lathrop, Jones, Alvarado-Díaz, Grünwald, and Murphy, 2014. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 524-525 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
 
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