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Cubophis vudii (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCubophis vudii vudii (COPE 1862)
Cubophis vudii aterrimus (BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935)
Cubophis vudii picticeps (CONANT 1937)
Cubophis vudii raineyi (BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935)
Cubophis vudii utowanae (BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935) 
Common NamesE: Bahamian Racer
G: Bahama-Natter 
SynonymAlsophis vudii COPE 1862: 74
Alsophis vudii — BARBOUR 1904: 60
Alsophis vudii — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 577
Alsophis vudii — CROTHER 1999
Ocyophis vudii — ZAHER et al. 2009
Cubophis vudii — HEDGES et al. 2009
Cubophis vudii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 201

Cubophis vudii vudii (COPE 1862)
Alsophis vudii vudii — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 578
Cubophis vudii vudii — HEDGES et al. 2009

Cubophis vudii aterrimus (BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935)
Alsophis vudii aterrimus BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935: 362
Alsophis vudii aterrimus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 578
Cubophis vudii aterrimus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Cubophis vudii picticeps (CONANT 1937)
Alsophis vudii picticeps — MEHRTENS 1987: 211
Alsophis vudii picticeps — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 578
Cubophis vudii picticeps — HEDGES et al. 2009

Cubophis vudii raineyi (BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935)
Alsophis vudii raineyi BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935: 363
Alsophis vudii raineyi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 578
Cubophis vudii raineyi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Cubophis vudii utowanae (BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935)
Alsophis vudii utowanae BARBOUR and SHREVE 1935: 366
Alsophis vudii utowanae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 578
Cubophis vudii utowanae — HEDGES et al. 2009 

vudii: Bahama Is.: Great Bahama Bank except Bimini Is.; Cat I.; Little San Salvador I.; Type locality: New Providence Island, Bahama Islands.

aterrimus: Bahama Is.: Little Bahama Bank.

picticeps: Bahama Is.: Bimini Is.

raineyi: Bahama Is.: Crooked I. and Acklins I.

utowanae: Bahama Is.: Great Inagua I., including Sheep Cay.  
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 5567, ANSP 5569-71, ANSP 5598-99.
Holotype: MCZ 37942 [aterrimus]
Holotype: MCZ 43150 [picticeps]
Holotype: MCZ 37929 [raineyi]
Holotype: MCZ 37941 [utowanae] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum SVL 765 mm; dorsal scale rows at midbody 17; ventrals 169-181 in males, 159-166 in females; subcaudals 112-120 in males, 101-120 in females; supralabials usually 8/8; infralabials usually 10/10; preoculars 1/1; postoculars 2/2; temporals 1+2/1+2; loreals 1/1. Dorsal ground color tan (South Bimini I.; Eleuthera; Long I.), sandy (Crooked I.), dark brown (South Bimini I.; Great Abaco: Treasure Cay), reddish brown (New Providence females; Cat I.), reddish (Eleuthera), taupe (Great Exuma), gray (New Providence), black; dorsal pattern variable: (1) uniform, (2) faint lateral stripes, (3) flecked or suffused with darker color, (4) irregular, diffuse banding, (5) combination of flecking and banding, (6) combination of faint lateral stripes and flecking; top of head with or without pattern, which, if present, may be sharply defined or diffuse; distinct, dark brown postorbital stripe terminating on temporals; preocular stripe mayor may not be present; supralabials bright orange, extending onto neck (Great Abaco: Treasure Cay); ventrals white, pale yellow (Crooked I.), cream (Great Abaco: Treasure Cay), pinkish tan (South Bimini I.), reddish brown, reddish (Eleuthera), orange (New Providence; Long I.; Cat I.), pale orange (Great Exuma), orange-gray (Great Abaco: Treasure Cay), brown, frequently grading to black posteriorly, variably suffused or spotted with tan (with darker borders; Cat I.), dark brown or black, or almost immaculate; underside of tail may be pale yellow (Great Exuma); iris creamy tan above, reddish brown below (Cat Island) (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 577). 
CommentIllustrations: Maglio, 1970; Mehrtens, 1987.

Diagnosis (aterrimus): Barbour & Shreve 1935: 363.

Diagnosis (raineyi): Barbour & Shreve 1935: 364.

Diagnosis (utowanae): Barbour & Shreve 1935: 365. 
EtymologyAccording to COPE 1862 "This species is dedicated to my friend, Dr. H.C. Wood, Jr., author of memoirs on Myriapoda and ... Cryptogamia."
Cubophis vudii utowanae was named after the research Yacht Utowana. 
  • Barbour, T. 1904. Batrachia and Reptilia from the Bahamas. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46: 55—61 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and B. Shreve. 1935. Concerning some Bahamian reptiles, with notes on the fauna. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 40: 347-365.
  • Barbour, Thomas 1906. Additional notes on Bahama snakes. American Naturalist 40 (471): 229-232 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Conant, R. 1937. Alsophis from new islands with the description of a new subspecies. Proc. New England Zool. Club 16: 81-83.
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • HOEFER, SEBASTIAN; ANDREU ROTGER, SOPHIE MILLS & NATHAN J. ROBINSON. 2021. Semi-automated photo-identification of Bahamian Racers (Cubophis vudii vudii). Acta Herpetologica 16(2): 133–136. - get paper here
  • Johnson, Scott 2020. First Record of the Bahamian Racer (Cubophis vudii vudii) in Joulter Cays National Park, Bahamas. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (2): 253 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Scott 2021. Attempted predation of a Bahamian Racer (Cubophis vudii vudii) by a Bahamian Boa (Chilabothrus strigilatus strigilatus) on New Providence, The Bahamas. Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (1): 59-60 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Scott 2021. First record of a "mating ball" in Bahamian Racers (Cubophis vudii) on Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (2): 274
  • Johnson, Scott; Bradley Watson 2021. Records of mating in the Bahamian Racer (Cubophis vudii vudii). Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (1): 61-62 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Scott; William K Hayes 2020. An Improved Approach to Measuring Sexual Dimorphism in Snakes: Morphological Variation in the Bahamian Racer (Cubophis vudii vudii). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (2): 137-146 - get paper here
  • Maglio, Vincent J. 1970. West Indian Xenodontine colubrid snakes: Their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 141 (1): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Powell, Robert. 2014. Cubophis vudii (Cope) - Bahamian Racer, Bahamian Brown Racer. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (903): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wieg, C. 2009. Geographic Variation in the Bahamian Brown Racer, Alsophis Vudii. Masters Thesis, Ohio University, 48 pp.
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