Cuora trifasciata (BELL, 1825)
|Higher Taxa||Geoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudines (turtles)|
|Common Names||E: Three-banded Box Turtle|
|Synonym||Sternothaerus trifasciatus BELL 1825|
Cistudo trifasciata — HARDWICKE & GRAY 1835
Cistudo trifasciata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 219
Cistudo Trifasciata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Cuora trifasciata GRAY 1856: 264
Cyclemys trifasciata BOULENGER 1889
Cuora trifasciata — KING & BURKE 1989
Mauremys iversoni PRITCHARD & MCCORD 1991 (part.)
Clemmys guangxiensis QIN 1991 (part.)
Ocadia philippeni MCCORD & IVERSON 1992 (part.)
Sacalia pseudoocellata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992 (part.)
Cuora trifasciata — XIANGKUI 1994
Sacalia pseudoocellata — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia pseudoocellata — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Cuora cyclornata cyclornata BLANCK, MCCORD & LE MINH 2006
Cuora cyclornata meieri BLANCK, MCCORD & LE MINH 2006
“Sacalia pseudocellata” — STUART & PARHAM 2007
Cuora cyclornata — ZHOU et al. 2007
Cuora trifasciata — ZHOU et al. 2007
Cuora cyclornata — SANG et al. 2009
|Distribution||S China (Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Hainan Island, Hong Kong)|
cyclornata: N Vietnam (Vinh Phu); Type locality: “Phong Nha Ke bang, Vietnam”
meieri: Vietnam (Vinh Phu), Type locality: Tam Dao, Vinh Phu Province, Vietnam
iversoni: China (Fujian, Guizhou, Guangxi)
Ocadia philippeni: China (W Hainan)
Sacalia pseudoocellata: China (Hainan) Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Types||Holotype: OUM 08557|
Holotype: ZFMK 71348 (cyclornata)
Holotype MHNT CHE 1992-III (meremi)
|Comment||Hybridization: Wink et al. (2001) and Parham et al. (2001) suggested that Mauremys iversoni is a hybrid between Cuora trifasciata and M. mutica. Ocadia philippeni has some characters of Cuora trifasciata and may be a hybrid (PARHAM et al. 2001) between Cuora trifasciata (or possibly Mauremys iversoni) and Ocadia sinensis. According to SPINKS et al. (2004) the interpretation of O.philippeni as a potential hybrid is somewhat clouded by its close relationship with Mauremys iversoni, which is itself a potential hybrid species. The O. philippeni analyzed by SPINKS et al. (2004) appears to be a hybrid because it falls on a very short branch with a non-congeneric species (M.iversoni ), and both of these species are nested well within the genus Cuora. However, the Mauremys iversoni/O. philippeni clade is reasonably well-differentiated from all other Cuora, a result that would not be expected if M. iversoni and O. philippeni are both recent hybrids between recognized taxa. STUART & PARHAM (2007) confirmed that Ocadia philippeni is a hybrid of Mauremys sinensis and Cuora trifasciata. STUART & PARHAM (2007) showed that Sacalia pseudocellata is a hybrid of Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora trifasciata.|
Picture in Draco 13 (4): 94 (2003).
Distribution: C. trifasciata (sensu strictu) is not in Vietnam or Laos (Torsten Blanck, pers. comm.); however, if cyclornata is included trifasciata does occur in Vietnam.
Conservation: This is one of the most endangered turtle species according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN.
Synonymy: Little or no mitochondrial DNA variation was found among the morphologically distinct species Cuora aurocapitata, Cuora pani, and Cuora trifasciata (STUART & PARHAM 2004). Cuora cyclornata may be a hybrid and has been provisionally considered to be a synonym of Cuora trifasciata by SPINKS & SHAFFER et al. (2006) in an “note added in proof”, and more formally in SPINKS et al. (2009).
According to SCHILDE (2004) the type locality of this species is not known. C. trifasciata and C. pani are paraphyletic (SPINKS et al. 2007).
|Etymology||Named after Hans-Peter Philippen, German herpetoculturist.|
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