You are here » home advanced search Cuora trifasciata

Cuora trifasciata (BELL, 1825)

IUCN Red List - Cuora trifasciata - Critically Endangered, CR

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Three-banded Box Turtle
G: Dreistreifen-Scharnierschildkröte 
SynonymSternothaerus trifasciatus BELL 1825
Cistudo trifasciata — HARDWICKE & GRAY 1835
Cistudo trifasciata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 219
Cistudo Trifasciata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Cuora trifasciata GRAY 1856: 264
Cyclemys trifasciata BOULENGER 1889
Cuora trifasciata — KING & BURKE 1989
Mauremys iversoni PRITCHARD & MCCORD 1991 (part.)
Clemmys guangxiensis QIN 1991 (part.)
Ocadia philippeni MCCORD & IVERSON 1992 (part.)
Sacalia pseudoocellata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992 (part.)
Cuora trifasciata — XIANGKUI 1994
Sacalia pseudoocellata — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia pseudoocellata — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Cuora cyclornata cyclornata BLANCK, MCCORD & LE MINH 2006
Cuora cyclornata meieri BLANCK, MCCORD & LE MINH 2006
“Sacalia pseudocellata” — STUART & PARHAM 2007
Cuora cyclornata — ZHOU et al. 2007
Cuora trifasciata — ZHOU et al. 2007
Cuora cyclornata — SANG et al. 2009 
DistributionS China (Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Hainan Island, Hong Kong)

cyclornata: N Vietnam (Vinh Phu); Type locality: “Phong Nha Ke bang, Vietnam”

meieri: Vietnam (Vinh Phu), Type locality: Tam Dao, Vinh Phu Province, Vietnam

iversoni: China (Fujian, Guizhou, Guangxi)

Ocadia philippeni: China (W Hainan)

Sacalia pseudoocellata: China (Hainan) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: OUM 08557
Holotype: ZFMK 71348 (cyclornata)
Holotype MHNT CHE 1992-III (meremi) 
CommentHybridization: Wink et al. (2001) and Parham et al. (2001) suggested that Mauremys iversoni is a hybrid between Cuora trifasciata and M. mutica. Ocadia philippeni has some characters of Cuora trifasciata and may be a hybrid (PARHAM et al. 2001) between Cuora trifasciata (or possibly Mauremys iversoni) and Ocadia sinensis. According to SPINKS et al. (2004) the interpretation of O.philippeni as a potential hybrid is somewhat clouded by its close relationship with Mauremys iversoni, which is itself a potential hybrid species. The O. philippeni analyzed by SPINKS et al. (2004) appears to be a hybrid because it falls on a very short branch with a non-congeneric species (M.iversoni ), and both of these species are nested well within the genus Cuora. However, the Mauremys iversoni/O. philippeni clade is reasonably well-differentiated from all other Cuora, a result that would not be expected if M. iversoni and O. philippeni are both recent hybrids between recognized taxa. STUART & PARHAM (2007) confirmed that Ocadia philippeni is a hybrid of Mauremys sinensis and Cuora trifasciata. STUART & PARHAM (2007) showed that Sacalia pseudocellata is a hybrid of Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora trifasciata.

Picture in Draco 13 (4): 94 (2003).

Distribution: C. trifasciata (sensu strictu) is not in Vietnam or Laos (Torsten Blanck, pers. comm.); however, if cyclornata is included trifasciata does occur in Vietnam.

Conservation: This is one of the most endangered turtle species according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN.

Synonymy: Little or no mitochondrial DNA variation was found among the morphologically distinct species Cuora aurocapitata, Cuora pani, and Cuora trifasciata (STUART & PARHAM 2004). Cuora cyclornata may be a hybrid and has been provisionally considered to be a synonym of Cuora trifasciata by SPINKS & SHAFFER et al. (2006) in an “note added in proof”, and more formally in SPINKS et al. (2009).

According to SCHILDE (2004) the type locality of this species is not known. C. trifasciata and C. pani are paraphyletic (SPINKS et al. 2007).

Reproduction: oviparous. 
EtymologyNamed after Hans-Peter Philippen, German herpetoculturist. 
References
  • Bell, T. 1825. A monograph of the tortoises having a moveable sternum, with remarks on their arrangement and affinities. Zoological Journal. London. 2: 299-310. - get paper here
  • Blanck, T., W. P. McCord & Le Minh 2006. On the variability of Cuora trifasciata (Bell, 1825), the rediscovery of the type specimen, with descriptions of a new Cuora species and subspecies, and remarks on the distribution, habitat and vulnerability of these species. Frankfurt: Chimaira.152 pp.
  • Bourret, R. 1941. Les tortues de l'Indochine. Institut Océanographique l'Indochine 38:1-235
  • Dalton, Rex 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. 1988. Cuora mccordi, a new chines box turtle from Guangxi Province. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 101: 466-470 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. On some new species freshwater tortoises from North America, Ceylon and Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 18: 263-268 - get paper here
  • Gray. J. E. 1835. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major - General Hardwicke. [Coluber bengalensis]. Vol. 2. London (1833-1834): 263 pp., 95 plates - get paper here
  • Hall, Georgiana 1995. Asian box turtles [Cuora amboinensis; C. trifasciata; C. galbinifrons]. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine 1995 (May/June): 110-116
  • Iverson,J.B. & McCord,W.P. 1992. A new Chinese eyed turtle of the genus Sacalia (Batagurinae: Testudines). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 105 (3): 426-432 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #16: Pond, Thread, and Four-Eyed Turtles of Eastern Asia. Reptilia (GB) (36): 10-13 - get paper here
  • McCord,W.P. & Iverson,J.B. 1992. A new species of Ocadia (Testudines: Bataguridae) from Hainan Island, China. Proc. Biol. Washington 105 (1): 13-18
  • Meier, E. 1999. Das Schildkröten-Erhaltungszuchtprojektder ZGAP. Elaphe 7 (4): 78-80
  • Mell,R. 1938. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. VI. Aus der Biologie chinesischer Schildkröten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, N.F., 7 (3): 390-475.
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford ; W. Brian Simison; Kenneth H. Kozak; Chris R. Feldman and Haitao Shi 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4: 357–367 [erratum in Animal Conservation 5:86]
  • Parham, James Ford and Haitao Shi 2001. The discovery of Mauremys iversoni-like turtles at a turtle farm in Hainan Province, China: the counterfeit golden coin. Asiatic Herpetological Research. 9: 71-76 - get paper here
  • Pauler, I. 1980. Die Schildkrötengattung Cuora. Herpetofauna 2 (6): 15-18 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Shi, Haitao; Jonathan J. Fong, James F. Parham, Junfeng Pang, Jichao Wang, Meiling Hong, Ya-Ping Zha 2008. Mitochondrial variation of the “eyed” turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 1025-1029 - get paper here
  • SPINKS, PHILLIP Q.; ROBERT C. THOMSON & H. BRADLEY SHAFFER 2009. A reassessment of Cuora cyclornata Blanck, McCord and Le, 2006 (Testudines, Geoemydidae) and a plea for taxonomic stability. Zootaxa 2018: 58-68 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Robert C. Thomson, YaPing Zhang, Jing Che, Yonghua Wu, H. Bradley Shaffer 2012. Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships in the critically endangered Asian box turtle genus Cuora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 (3): 656-667 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley 2007. Conservation phylogenetics of the Asian box turtles (Geoemydidae, Cuora): mitochondrial introgression, numts, and inferences from multiple nuclear loci. Conservation Genetics 8(3):641-657 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Iverson, John B; McCord, William P. 2004. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1):164-182 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. and James Ford Parham 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (1): 164-177 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conserv Genet (2007) 8:169–175
  • Timmins, Robert J. and Khamkhoun Khounboline. 1999. Occurrence and trade of the golden turtle, Cuora trifasciata, in Laos. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 3 (3): 441-447
  • Wink,M., Guicking, D. & Fritz, U. 2001. Molecular evidence for hybrid origin of Mauremys iversoni PRITCHARD et MAcCORD 1991, and Mauremys pritchardi McDORD 1997 (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 51 (5): 41-49 - get paper here
  • Xiangkui-Y 1994. Fossil and recent turtles of China. Science Press, Beijing. 1994: i-vi, 1-112
  • Zhou, T.; McCord, W.; Blanck, T. & Li, P.P. 2007. Cuora trifasciata and Cuora cyclornata - captive breeding in China. Reptilia (GB) (50): 68-73 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator