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Cyclocorus lineatus (REINHARDT, 1843)

IUCN Red List - Cyclocorus lineatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Cyclocorinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesCyclocorus lineatus lineatus (REINHARDT 1843)
Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai LEVITON 1967 
Common NamesReinhardt's Lined Snake 
SynonymLycodon lineatus REINHARDT 1843: 241
Cyclocorus lineatus — DUMÉRIL, 1853
Cyclocorus lineatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 386
Cyclocorus lineatus — BOULENGER 1893: 327
Cyclocorus lineatus — LEVITON 1967
Cyclocorus lineatus lineatus — MCLEOD et al. 2011
Cyclocorus lineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 202

Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai LEVITON 1967
Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai — GAULKE 2011: 268
Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai — GAULKE 2013
Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai — SUPSUP et al. 2016 
DistributionPhilippines (Lubang, Luzon, Mindoro, Polillo)

alcalai: Negros, Cebu, Panay; type locality: ridge on the north side of the Maite River, 5 km west of Valencia.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZMUC 60489
Holotype: CAS 101587 [alcalai] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Cyclocorinae): Members of the Philippine endemic subfamily Cyclocorinae can be distinguished from many members of the Elapoidea by possession of (1) intermediate body size (250–600 mm total length, excepting the unnamed lineage represented here by the specimen KU 337269); (2) 15 or 17 smooth scale rows at midbody; (3) a single row of subcaudals (shared by members of the genera Cyclocorus, Hologerrhum, and the unnamed lineage represented by KU 337269); (4) a distinctively elongate snout, characterized by the presence of enlarged anterior chin shields and an elongate loreal scale (shared by members of Oxyrhabdium and Myersophis); (5) a small number (5–6) of supralabials (Oxyrhabdium, Myersophis, and the unnamed lineage represented by KU 337269); and (6) markedly bulging, dorsally protruding eyes (Oxyrhabdium and Myersophis).

Definition (genus): maxillary teeth 16 to 21, the anterior three to seven increasing in size posteriorly, the last two very large and fanglike, followed by a short diastema and 12 to 15 small teeth; maxillary bone bent inwards anteriorly; head slightly distinct from neck; eye small, pupil round ; body cylindrical; scales in 17 longitudinal rows at midbody, smooth, without apical pits; ventrals rounded ; subcaudals unpaired ; hypapophyses present throughout dorsal vertebrae; hemipenes elongate, narrow, un- forked; sulcus spermaticus unforked (from LEVITON 1967).

Diagnosis (lineatus): Usually two anterior temporals; eight upper labials, three of which border eye; ventrals: males 142 to 157, females 146 to 163; subcaudals: males 52 to 59, females 42 to 48; tail length/standard length ratio: males 0.337 [0.295 to 0.371], females 0.226 [0.196 to 0.262]; white spots present on lateral edge of ventrals; venter with many dark usually triangularly-shaped blotches.

Diagnosis (alcalai): Usually two anterior temporals; eight upper labials, three of which border eye; ventrals: males 142 to 153, females 144 to 159; subcaudals : males 42 to 53, females 33 to 44; tail length/ standard length ratio : males 0.259 [0.235 to 0.296], females 0.197 [0.152 to 0.223]; very small white spots present on outer lateral edges of ventrals ; venter with dark, triangularly-shaped blotches, especially well developed along lateral edges of ventral shields. 
CommentType species: Lycodon lineatus REINHARDT 1843 is the type species of the genus Cyclocorus DUMÉRIL et al. 1854.

Type genus: Cyclocorus DUMÉRIL 1853: 460 is the type genus of the subfamily Cyclocorinae Weinell & Brown 2017.

Phylogenetic definition (Cyclocorinae): Cyclocorinae refers to the clade originating in the last common ancestor of Oxyrhabdium leporinum (Günther, 1858), Cyclocorus lineatus (Reinhardt, 1843), the unnamed lineage represented by KU 337269, and all species that descend from that ancestor. It can also be conceived of as the largest crown-clade containing members of the genera Cyclocorus, Hologerrhum, Myersophis, and Oxyrhabdium, and members of the unnamed lineage represented by KU 337269.

Distribution: see map in LEVITON 1967. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line. 
References
  • Binaday, J.W.B. 2017. Cyclocorus lineatus (Reinhardt’s Lined Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 671.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Ferner, John W.; Sison, Rogelio V.; Gonzales, Pedro C.; Kennedy, Robert S. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of the Zambales Mountains of Luzon Island, Republic of the Philippines. Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 1-22
  • Brown; Rafe; Cameron Siler, Carl Oliveros, Luke Welton, Ashley Rock, John Swab, Merlijn Van Weerd, Jonah van Beijnen, Dominic Rodriguez, Edmund Jose, Arvin Diesmos 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. ZooKeys 266 (2013) Special Issue: 1-120<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.266.3982 - get paper here
  • DEVAN-SONG, Anne and Rafe M. BROWN 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): 1–20 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, ANDRÉ MARIE CONSTANT 1853. Prodrome de la classifcation des reptiles ophidiens. Mém. Acad. Sci., Paris, 23: 399-536 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2011. The herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Edition Chimaira, 390 pp.
  • Gaulke, M. 2013. Abenteuerurlaub auf den Philippinen. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 114-125 - get paper here
  • Gojo-Cruz, Paul Henric P. and Leticia E. Afuang 2018. The Zoogeographic Significance of Caraballo Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines With Focus on the Biogeography of Luzon’s Herpetofauna Philippine Journal of Science 147 (3): 393-409 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E. 1967. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes, IX. The snakes of the genus Cyclocorus. Philippine J. Sci. 94 (4): 519-533 [1965] - get paper here
  • MCLEOD, David S.; Cameron D. SILER, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Mae L. DIESMOS, Vhon S. GARCIA, Angela O. ARKONCEO, Kelvin L. BALAQUIT, Charlene C. UY, Mariden M. VILLASERAN, Earle C. YARRA, Rafe M. BROWN 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (4): 177–198 - get paper here
  • Pili, Arman N.; Yñigo Luis C. Del Prado 2018. Alcala’s Triangle-spotted Snake Cyclocorus lineatus alcalai on Sibuyan Island, Romblon Province, Philippines SEAVR 2018: 16-17 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen, J.B. & B. Hughes 1996. Description of some new snake species. I. [English translation of the original Danish text of T. Reinhardt 1843]. Steenstrupia 22: 13-39
  • Reinhardt, J. T. 1843. Beskrivelse af nogle nye Slangearter. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Afhandl. 10: 233-279. - get paper here
  • Siler, C.D.; L.J. Welton; J.M. Siler; J. Brown; A. Bucol; A.C. Diesmos; R. Brown. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records. Check List 7 (2):182-195 - get paper here
  • Thompson, J.C. 1913. Contributions to the Anatomy of the Ophidia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1913: 414-426 - get paper here
  • Toledo-Bruno, Angela Grace; Daryl G. Macas, Dave P. Buenavista, Michael Arieh P. Medina, Ronald Regan C. Forten 2017. Amphibian and reptile diversity in Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Philippines Environmental and Experimental Biology 15: 127–135, DOI: 10.22364/eeb.15.11 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, J. L., & Brown, R. M. 2017. Discovery of an old, archipelago-wide, endemic radiation of Philippine snakes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 119: 144–150 [2018] - get paper here
 
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