You are here » home advanced search search results Cylindrophis ruffus

Cylindrophis ruffus (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Cylindrophis ruffus - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Cylindrophis ruffus?

Add your own observation of
Cylindrophis ruffus »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaCylindrophiidae, Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Red-tailed Pipe Snake, Red Cylinder Snake
G: Rotschwanz-Walzenschlange, Rote Walzenschlange
Indonesian: Ular Pipa Ekor Merah
E: Mirza’s Pipe-Snake [mirzae]
Indonesian: Ular Pipa Mirza [mirzae]
Chinese: 红尾筒蛇 
SynonymAnguis ruffa LAURENTI 1768: 71
Anguis rufus — GMELIN 1789 (nomen emend.)
Anguis striatus GMELIN 1789
Anguis scytale RUSSELL 1801
Anguis rufa — SHAW 1802 (nomen emend.)
Cylindrophis resplendens WAGLER 1828 (fide SCHLEGEL 1844)
Tortrix rufa — DE FILIPPI 1840
Cylindrophis rufa GRAY 1842
Cylindrophis rufa — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 595
Cylindrophis rufa — JAN 1865
Cylindrophis rufus — STOLICZKA 1870: 183
Cylindrophis rufus — BOULENGER 1893: 134
Cylindrophis rufus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 36
Cylindrophis rufus — SMITH 1943: 96
Cylindrophis ruffus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 413
Cylindrophis ruffus — COX et al. 1998: 16
Cylindrophis ruffus — STUEBING & INGER 1999
Cylindrophis ruffus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 154
Cylindrophis ruffus ruffus — LANG & VOGEL 2005
Cylindrophis ruffus — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Cylindrophis ruffus ruffus — COX et al. 2012: 44
Cylindrophis ruffus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 204
Cylindrophis rufus — LILLYWHITE 2014: 15 (in error)
Cylindrophis ruffus — AMARASINGHE et al. 2015
Cylindrophis mirzai AMARASINGHE et al. 2015 (see comment) 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra, Riau, Banka, Borneo, Java, Sula, Buton, Sulawesi= Celebes, Komodo, Natuna islands),
W Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia,
China (Hainan, Fujian, Xiamen)

Type locality: Java in Indonesia (Schlegel 1844). The original type locality given by Laurenti was in error, see comment.

mirzae: Singapore; Type locality: Singapore  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1940.3.3.1 (designated by Amarasinghe et al. 2015 who also discussed type issues further). Holotype: RMNH ?, also given as MG (Museo Gronoviano), lost fide Iskandar & Colijn 2002: 24.
Lectotype: BMNH 1940.3.3.1 [burmanus]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 3279, (SVL 419 mm), collected at Singapore, by Joseph Fortuné Théodore Eydoux (1802–1841), certainly during the expedition on the vessel La Favorite (1829–1832). Paratypes (3): BMNH 1847.2.9.23, (SVL 693 mm), collected from Singapore, by A.F. Gardiner, collection date unknown; BMNH 1938.9.8.1, (SVL 580 mm), collected from Singapore, by Dr. A.G.H. Smart (Assistant Medical Advisor, Colonial Office S.W.1.), presented by Dr. H.B. Newham (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), collection date unknown; BMNH 1880.9.10.23, (SVL 298 mm), collected from Singapore, collector and the date unknown, presented by Dr. Dennis. [mirzae] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (family): The family Cylindrophiidae can be distinguished from its sister family Anomochilidae by having a mental grove, nasals in contact, and no preocular (Das et al. 2008).

Diagnosis (genus): (1) relatively blunt head with minute eyes, head not distinct from neck, bearing a mental groove; (2) absence of true gastrosteges, with ventral scales only slightly larger than or equal in size to dorsal scales; (3) presence of a pair of pelvic spurs (= cloacal spurs) in both sexes; (4) a very short tail, often with conspicuous ventral coloration; and (5) contrasting light and dark ventral blotching (de Rooij 1917; Smith 1943; Taylor 1965; Greene 1973, Kieckbusch et al. 2016).

Original description: ““Corpore aequali, ruffo, lineis trans- versalibus albis interruptis; abdomine vario” translated to “Body uniform, red, broken white trans- verse bands; abdomen various. Lives in Surinam; housed in Gronovius’s Museum” by Adler et al. (1992).

Diagnosis: Cylindrophis ruffus is distinguished from all congeners by having the following characters: 19 midbody scale rows (vs. 17 in C. engkariensis; 21 in C. isolepis, C. lineatus, C. maculatus, C. yamdena; 23 in C. aruensis, C. opisthorhodus), 186–197 ventrals (vs. 233– 275 in C. melanotus; 201–225 in C. burmanus), wide and constant bands encircling dark body (vs. dorsum uniform black with no cross bands in C. boulengeri; narrow and alternating bands on paler body in C. burmanus), an interrupted and wide band on the nape (vs. no ring on the nape in C. boulengeri; a complete and narrow ring encir- cling the nape in C. burmanus) [Amarasinghe et al. 2015: 38].

Diagnosis: Cylindrophis mirzae sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by having the following characters: 21 midbody scale rows (vs. 17 in C. engkariensis; 19 in C. boulengeri, C. burmanus, C. melanotus, C. ruffus; 23 in C. aruensis, C. opisthorhodus), narrow and completed lighter rings encircling the dark body at anterior and posterior parts of the body (vs. no bands on the paler back in C. isolepis and C. yamdena; lateral and middorsal stripes along the body in C. lineatus; wide and interrupted bands on the back in C. jodiae sp. nov.; two series of large reddish-brown spots along the back, which are enclosed by a black network in C. maculatus). 
CommentAlthough the name is often spelled "rufus", the original spelling by Laurenti contained a double "f". See MCDIARMID et al. (1999) for further discussion and references.

Synonymy: Cylindrophis ruffus burmanus SMITH 1943 has been elevated to full species by Amarasinghe et al. 2015. Kieckbusch et al. 2016 synonymized C. mirzae with C. ruffus. The paper by Amarasinghe et al. (2015) exists in two versions, an earlier one, in which Fig. 8 lists the names of the new species as C. jodii and C. mirzai, and a revised version in which these errors have been corrected (Kieckbusch et al. 2016). Scytale scheuchzeri MERREM 1820 used to be listed as a synonym of C. ruffus (e.g. Boie 1827; Schlegel 1837; Duméril & Bibron 1844; Gray 1849; McDiarmid et al. 1999; Bauer & Wahlgren 2013; Wallach et al. 2014) but was shown not to be most likely a colubroid snake (Kieckbusch et al. 2016: 7).

Etymology (mirzae): The species epithet is an eponym latinized as a noun in the genitive singular, honouring Dr. Mirza Kusrini for her generous friendship and support, for her dedication and important contributions to herpetological conservation and ecology in Indonesia. Mirza Kusrini is an Indonesian herpetologist and currently she is a lecturer at Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia and a steering committee member of IUCN Species Survival Commission Amphibian Specialist Group.

Distribution: not in Hong Kong fide Francis 2021.

Terra typica: Surinam (in error).

Type species: Cylindrophis resplendens Wagler 1828 is the type species of the genus Cylindrophis WAGLER 1828. The genus is also the type genus of the family Cylindrophiidae. 
  • Adler, Kraig; Zhao, Ermi; Darevsky, Ilya S. 1992. First records of the pipe snake (Cylindrophis) in China. Asiatic Herpetological Research 4: 37-41 - get paper here
  • Amarasinghe AAT, Campbell PD, Hallermann J, Sidik I, Supriatna J, Ineich I. 2015. Two new species of the genus Cylindrophis Wagler, 1828 (Squamata: Cylindrophiidae) from Southeast Asia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9 (1): 34–51
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Bergman, R.A.M. 1953. The anatomy of Cylindrophis rufus (Laur.). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet. Amsterdam, C 56:650-666.
  • Bezuijen, Mark R. 2009. Field Observation of a Large Prey Item Consumed by a Small Cylindrophis ruffus (Laurenti, 1768) (Serpentes: Cylindrophiidae). Hamadryad 34 (1): 186-188 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Cox, Merel J.; Hoover, M.F.; Chanhome, Lawan & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 2012. The Snakes of Thailand. Chulalongkorn University Museum of Natural History, 845 pp.
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel, G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S. - get paper here
  • Deuve, J. 1961. Liste annotee des Serpents du Laos. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Laos 1:5-32.
  • Deuve, J. 1970. Serpents du Laos. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris, Mem. no. 39 251 pp. - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Filippi, F. de 1840. Catalogo Raggionato e Descrittivo ... Serpenti del Museo dell’ I. R. Universitá de Pavia. Bibliot. Ital. 99: 163-187, 306-343
  • Frank, W. 1969. Cylindrophis rufus - eine nur selten gehaltene ostasiatische Schlange aus der Überfamilie Booidea. Salamandra 5 (3-4): 105-112 - get paper here
  • Frith,C.B. & Frith,D.W. 1978. Additions to the snake fauna of Phuket Island, Peninsular Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. (Bangkok) 27: 181-186
  • Geissler, Peter, Truong Quang Nguyen, Nikolay A. Poyarkov & Wolfgang Böhme 2011. New records of snakes from Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai and Lam Dong provinces, southern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 9-16 - get paper here
  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil II: Reptilia: Serpentes; Testudines; Diskussion. Sauria 23 (1): 25-40 - get paper here
  • Hakim, J. 2012. Herping Asias Megacities. HerpNation (9): 42-50 - get paper here
  • Hampton, Paul M. 2018. Morphological Indicators of Gape Size for Red-Tailed Pipe Snakes (Cylindrophis ruffus). Journal of Herpetology 52 (4): 425-429. - get paper here
  • Herlambang, A. E., Riyanto, A., Munir, M., Hamidy, A., Kimura, K., Eto, K., & Mumpuni, M. 2022. AFTER 16 YEARS: AN UPDATE CHECKLIST OF HERPETOFAUNA ON THE NATUNA ISLANDS, INDONESIA. TREUBIA, 49(2), 67-84
  • Husson, S.J.; S.H. Limin, Adul, N.S. Boyd, J.J. Brousseau, S. Collier, S.M. Cheyne, L.J. D’Arcy, R.A. Dow, N.W. Dowds, M.L. Dragiewicz, D.A. Ehlers Smith, Iwan, Hendri, P.R. Houlihan, K.A. Jeffers, B.J.M. Jarrett, I.P. Kulu, H.C. Morrogh-Bernard, S.E 2018. Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo. Mires and Peat 22 (05): 1–50 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 9. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris [1864] - get paper here
  • Karns, D.R.; Murphy, J.C.; Voris, H.K. & Suddeth, J.S. 2005. Comparison of Semi-aquatic Snake Communities Associated with the Khorat Basin, Thailand. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 5(2): 73-90 - get paper here
  • KHOERUNISA, IRA; MIRZA D. KUSRINI, AND ANI MARDIASTUTI 2021. Diversity of snake rescued from residential areas in Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, Indonesia. Media Konservasi 26 (3): 231-238; DOI: 10.29244/medkon.26.3.231-238 - get paper here
  • KIECKBUSCH, MAX; FELIX MADER, HINRICH KAISER & SVEN MECKE 2018. A new species of Cylindrophis Wagler, 1828 (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae) from Boano Island, northern Maluku Province, Indonesia. Zootaxa 4486 (3): 236–250 - get paper here
  • Koch, A. 2012. Discovery, Diversity, and Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi and its offshore islands. Edition Chimaira, 374 pp. [ISBN 978-3-89973-432-4] - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de & G. Vogel 2005. The snakes of Sulawesi. A field guide to the land snakes of Sulawesi with identification keys. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 25, Frankfurt am Main, 312 pp.
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp. - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Mader, Felix; Sven Mecke 2018. First record of a melanistic specimen of Cylindrophis ruffus (Laurenti, 1768) sensu lato (Serpentes: Cylindrophiidae). Herpetology Notes 11: 417-420 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Yury A. Lukin 2020. A Revised Herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (6): 353-368 - get paper here
  • Müller,F. 1895. Reptilien und Amphibien aus Celebes. (II. Bericht). Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 10: 862-869 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Smedley, N. 1931. Notes on some Malaysian snakes. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 5: 49-54
  • Smith, M. A. 1921. Earth Snake Eating a Grass Snake. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 4: 196 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stoliczka, F. 1870. Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 39: 134-228. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124]. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Underwood, G. 2002. On the rictal structures of some snakes. Herpetologica 58 (1): 1-17 - get paper here
  • Voris, H.K. 2006. Assessment of Biodiversity among Southeast Asian Amphibians and Reptiles. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 6(1): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Wagler, J. 1828. Descriptiones et icones amphibiorum. Vol. 1. J. G. Cotttae, Stuttgartiae, Monachii et Tubingiae, i-xii pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2003. Die vielfältige Welt chinesischer Schlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 20-29 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2003. The wide world of snakes in China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 12-21 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Ziegler, T., RAUHAUS, A., NGUYEN, T.Q. & NGUYEN, K.V. 2015. Südlichster Nachweis von Gekko badenii SZCZERBAK & NEKRASOVA, 1994, mit Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna der Hon-Me-Auffangstation in der Provinz Kien Giang, Südvietnam. Sauria 37 (2): 3 - 14 - get paper here
  • Zug, George R.;Win, Htun;Thin, Thin;Min, Than Zaw;Lhon, Win Zaw;Kyaw, Kyaw 1998. Herpetofauna of the Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, north-central Myanmar with preliminary observations of their Natural History. Hamadryad 23 (2): 111-120 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator