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Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis GRISMER, WOOD JR, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW, 2018

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBayin Nyi Cave bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis GRISMER, WOOD JR, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW 2018 
DistributionMyanmar (Kayin)

Type locality: Bayin Nyi Cave, 16.8 km north-west of Hpa-an, Hpa-an District, Kayin State, Myanmar (16.97048°N, 97.49378°E; 33 m in elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 13265, Adult male, collected on 11 May 2017 at 2300 hrs by Mark W. Herr, Perry L. Wood Jr., L. Lee Grismer, Matthew L. Murdoch, Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, and Htet Kyaw.
Paratypes: Unsexed juveniles LSUHC 13261–64 collected on 11 May 2017 at 2000–2130 hrs by Myint Kyaw Thura, L. Lee Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Evan S.H. Quah, and Htet Kyaw from Hpa-pu Hill, 3.1 km north of Hpa-an, Hpa-an District, Mon State, Myanmar (16.91072, 97.62716; 17 m in elevation). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of SVL 84.1 mm; 7–9 supralabials; six or seven infralabials; 25–27 paravertebral tubercles; 16–19 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 24–28 longitudinal rows of ventral scales; relatively long digits with nine expanded subdigital lamellae proximal to the digital inflexion on the fourth toe, 13 or 14 unmodified distal subdigital lamellae, 22 or 23 total subdigital lamellae; raised, moderately keeled, dorsal body tubercles in adults; tubercles extending beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales not continuous; enlarged proximal femoral scales larger than one-half the size of the enlarged distal femoral scales; 24–28 enlarged femoral scales; 15 femoral pores in male; nine precloacal pores in male; femoral and precloacal pore-bearing scales continuous; eight or nine enlarged precloacal scales; two or three rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; medial subcaudal scales 3 times as wide as long, extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head darkly mottled in the single adult, no yellow reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, no pronounced anterior azygous notch, posterior border jagged; 4–6 jagged, dark, dorsal bands with variably present paravertebral elements, wider than interspaces with lightened centres in adults, not edged with white tubercles; nape band present; dark markings in dorsal interspaces; ventrolateral folds not whitish; anterodorsal margins of thighs and brachia darkly pigmented; 7–11 light caudal bands not bearing dark markings, not encircling tail; 8–12 dark caudal bands wider than light caudal bands; and mature regenerated tail spotted. These characters are scored against all other species in the sinyineensis group (Table 4) and all other Burmese species of the Indochinese clade in Grismer et al. (2017a, table 8).

Variation (Figures 4 and 5 in Grismer et al. 2018). The juvenile paratypes resemble the holotype in that their dorsal bands are irregularly shaped. However, they differ in having much wider interspaces and to some extent bear paravertebral elements, and lacking a bold, diffuse, darkly mottled reticulum on the top of the head as opposed to having heads generally unicolour tan. These character states typically change during ontogeny. LSUHC 13262 has a wide area on the flank that lacks pigment which appears to be an anomaly. LSUHC 13261–63 have original tails with 7–11 light caudal bands not bearing dark marking and do not encircle the tail, and the 8–12 dark caudal bands are wider than the light caudal bands. Additional variation in meristic and mensural characters is presented in Table 5.

Comparisons: The PCA and DAPC analyses indicate that Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. is completely separate from all other species in morphospace along principal component 1 (PC1), with the first two principal components accounting for 51% of the total variation (Figure 3) and loading most heavily for numbers of paravertebral tubercles, fourth toe lamellae, infralabial scales and ventral scales. PC2 loaded most heavily for longitudinal rows of tubercles (Table 6). Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. differs from C. dammathetensis and C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. by having discontinuous as opposed to continuous pore-bearing femoral and precloacal pores. It differs from C. sinyineenensis and C. welpyanensis in lacking as opposed to having dark markings in the light caudal bands. It differs from C. aequalis and C. sinyineensis in lacking as opposed to having the dark dorsal bands being densely edged with white tubercles. It differs from C. dammathetensis, C. welpyanensis, C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. and C. naungkayaingensis sp. nov. by having a greater maximum SVL (84.1 mm vs 66.9–76.3 mm, collectively). Additional non-meristic differences between varying combinations of species in the sinyineenis group are illustrated in Table 4. The phylogenetic analyses recover Cyrtodactylus bayinnyiensis sp. nov. as the sister species of C. aequalis (Figure 6), from which it differs further by having significantly (p < 0.05) lower mean numbers of paravertebral tubercles (25–27, x = 26.0 vs 36) and ventral scales (24–28, x = 25.6 vs 19). Table 7 lists other meristic characters of C. bayinnyiensis sp. nov. that differ significantly from species of the sinyineensis group.
 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, bayinnyiensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Bayin Nyi Cave. 
References
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Aung Lin & Htet Kyaw 2018. Three more new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar underscore the urgent need for the conservation of karst habitats. Journal of Natural History, 52:19-20, 1243-1294 - get paper here
 
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