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Cyrtodactylus crustulus OLIVER, HARTMAN, TURNER, WILDE, AUSTIN & RICHARDS, 2020

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Manus bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus crustulus OLIVER, HARTMAN, TURNER, WILDE, AUSTIN & RICHARDS 2020
Cyrtodactylus sp. ‘Manus’ — TALLOWIN et al. 2018: 33 
DistributionPapua New Guinea (Manus Island)

Type locality: Papua New Guinea, Manus Province, Manus Island, “Yeri camp” (-2.0010, 146.8190),  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: SAMA R71122 (Field number SJR15091), adult male with original tail, with alcohol-preserved tissue for genetic analysis stored in the Australian Biological Tissues Collection (ABTC 136633), collected by Stephen Richards on 12 October 2014.
Paratypes. (n=4). SAMA R71119 (SJR15075) subadult, SAMA R71120–1 (SJR15076–7), SJR 15092 (to be repatriated to Papua New Guinea) adult males, all with same locality and collector information as holotype, collected between 11–12 October 2014. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of Cyrtodactylus that can be distinguished from all other species of Papuan Cyrtodactylus by the following unique combination of character states: moderate adult size (SVL 93–102 mm); continuous medial row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales absent; enlarged femoral scales absent; precloacal and femoral pores in males absent; irregularly spaced dark-brown dorsal bands or transverse series of blotches on torso in series of 5–6 (not including nuchal band) with alternating indistinct lighter-brown interstitial bands; dorsal and lateral tubercles present on proximal and distal segments of all limbs; dorsal tubercles at mid-point of body between lateral skin folds in 18–19 rows; tubercles across supra- and interorbital regions usually >10; majority (80–90%) of tubercles within dark-brown dorsal bands light brown and contrasting against surrounding pigmentation; lateral region of head and torso with extensive yellowish spots in life; pale regions on dorsal surfaces of neck and posterior head with indistinct aggregations of light-brown subcircular markings; and nuchal band with regularly scalloped anterior and posterior edges.

Comparisons. C. crustulus sp. nov. does not occur in sympatry with any other species of Cyrtodactylus, and it can be readily distinguished from all Melanesian Cyrtodactylus apart from Cyrtodactylus sermowaiensis by the combination of distinct medial row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales absent (original tails only); enlarged femoral scales absent; and precloacal or femoral pores absent in males. C. crustulus sp. nov. further differs from two other Cyrtodactylus occurring in the Solomon Islands as follows; from Cyrtodactylus biordinus Brown & McCoy by its higher number of dark-brown transverse dorsal markings (5–6 versus 2–3), presence of a clear nuchal band (versus absent or broken), and postorbital stripe extending to nuchal region only and merging with nuchal band (versus extending along torso and not merging with a nuchal band); and from Cyrtodactylus salomonensis Rösler, Günther & Richards by its smaller size (adult max SVL 103 mm versus 149 mm), lower number of mid-body dorsal tubercle rows (18–19 versus 24–29), and in lacking of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales (versus present).
Cyrtodactylus crustulus sp. nov. is most similar to its close relative C. sermowaiensis, with both species lacking a continuous row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales, enlarged femoral scales and precloacal/femoral pores; however, it differs in aspects of colouration and scalation, specifically: enlarged tubercles across supra- and interorbital regions more numerous (usually >10 versus <10); tubercles within dark-brown dorsal bands mostly light brown and contrasting against surrounding dark-brown pigmentation (versus tending to be mostly dark-brown and not contrasting against dark-brown colouration of bands); numerous pale-yellow lateral spots on the head and torso in life (versus sparse or absent); pale regions on dorsal surfaces of neck and posterior head with indistinct aggregations of light-brown subcircular markings (versus at most sparse maculations not forming irregular shapes); and nuchal band with regularly scalloped anterior and posterior edges (versus not or irregularly scalloped) (Figs 2, 4). 
Comment 
EtymologyCrustulum “cake”. Latin (masculine) meaning cake or pastry; used in reference to the small cake-shaped markings on the posterior dorsal region of the head and similar-shaped indentations along the edges of the nuchal band. 
References
  • OLIVER, PAUL M.; RYAN HARTMAN, CAMERON D. TURNER, TAYLOR A. WILDE, CHRISTOPHER C. AUSTIN, STEPHEN J. RICHARDS 2020. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Gekkonidae: Squamata) from Manus Island, and extended description and range extension for Cyrtodactylus sermowaiensis (De Rooij). Zootaxa 4728 (3): 341–356 - get paper here
  • Tallowin, O. J. S., Tamar, K., Meiri, S., Allison, A., Kraus, F., Richards, S. J., & Oliver, P. M. 2018. Early insularity and subsequent mountain uplift were complementary drivers of diversification in a Melanesian lizard radiation (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 125: 29–39 - get paper here
 
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