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Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis GRISMER, WOOD, ANUAR, DAVIS, COBOS & MURDOCH, 2016

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Gunung Senyum Bent-toed Gecko
Malay: Cicak Gunung Senyum 
SynonymCyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis GRISMER, WOOD, ANUAR, DAVIS, COBOS & MURDOCH 2016 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Pahang)

Type locality: Gunung Senyum, Hutan Lipur Gunung Senyum, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (3°41.530’N, 102°26.005’E; 75 m) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. LSUHC 12209, Adult female, collected by L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Brandon T. Burch, Anthony J. Cobos, Hayden R. Davis, Shahrul Anuar, and Mathew L. Murdoch on 21 March 2015.
Paratypes. All paratypes (LSUHC 12199, 12201, 12204–06, 12220) bear the same collection data as the holotype. 
CommentDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other Sundaland species by having the following suite of character states: adult SVL 65.1–74.7 mm; low, rounded, weakly keeled, body tubercles; tubercles absent from occiput but present on nape and limbs, and extending posteriorly only onto anteriormost base of tail; 34–40 paravertebral tubercles; weak ventrolateral body fold lacking tubercles; 38–41 ventral scales; no transversely enlarged, median, subcaudal scales; 20–23 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; abrupt transition between posterior and ventral femoral scales; 31–39 enlarged femoroprecloacal scales; no femoral or precloacal pores; precloacal groove absent; wide, dark postorbital stripes extending from each eye and contacting on nape; no dark, postoccipital chevron; body bearing four or five wide, bold, dark, well-defined bands; light caudal bands wide. The meristic characters are scored across the sworderi complex in Table 5 (Grismer et al. 2016) and can be compared with all other Sundaland species in Grismer et al. 2012 (Table 6).

Comparisons. Within the Cyrtodactylus sworderi complex, C. gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. most closely resembles the other karst forest species C. guakanthanensis (Fig. 6) even though they are not each others closest relatives (Fig. 2). Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis is differentiated from C. guakanthanensis by having 34–40 as opposed to 32–34 paravertebral tubercles and rounded as opposed to conical dorsal tubercles on the body. These two species are very similar in dorsal banding and color pattern—the only consistent difference being that there is a dark, chevron-shaped nuchal blotch just posterior to the occiput in C. guakanthanensis that is lacking in C. gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. This similarity in pattern—which is quite divergent from the other species in the sworderi complex (Fig. 6)—is likely to have evolved in parallel (Fig. 2) and is an adaptation to a karst forest- dwelling life style. Similar banding patterns are seen in all other unrelated karst dwelling Cyrtodcatylus in Peninsular Malaysia (Fig. 6) and many of the other 35 karst dwelling species throughout Indochina (Table 6).
From its closest relative C. tebuensis, C. gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. differs in having low, rounded and weakly keeled dorsal tubercles as opposed to tubercles that are large, conical, and strongly keeled. Additionally, C. gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. differs in having 38–41 as opposed to 43–51 ventral scales; 20–23 as opposed to 17– 21 subdigital lamellae on the 4th toe; wide as opposed to narrow, light-colored caudal bands; and a banded as opposed to a striped or spotted dorsal pattern (Fig. 6). Differences between C. gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. and C. sworderi and C. quadrivirgatus are highlighted in Table 5 (all Figure and Table references in Grismer et al. 2016).

Habitat: open chambers and cave systems deeply incised and sculpted into the periphery of this limestone hill, surrounded by karst forest vegetation. All specimens of the type series and two additional specimens not collected were active at night on the limestone walls or the adjacent karst vegetation . Lizards were observed on vertical trunks of small trees as well as on thin, horizontal branches of low-growing shrubs. Lizards only occurred in areas where karst rock-rubble had accumulated at the edge of the cliff faces and where the cliff faces were eroded and exfoliated, providing cracks and holes into which lizards were able to take refuge. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet gunungsenyumensis refers to the type locality of Hutan Lipur Gunung Senyum, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. It is hoped this name will underscore the importance of this Hutan Lipur as a sanctuary for this endemic species and keep it safe from the quarrying interests of foreign cement companies. 
References
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; P. L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, H. R. DAVIS, A. J. COBOS & M. L. MURDOCH 2016. A new species of karst forest Bent-toed Gecko (genus Cyrtodactylus Gray) not yet threatened by foreign cement companies and a summary of Peninsular Malaysia’s endemic karst forest herpetofauna and the need for its conservation Zootaxa 4061 (1): 001–017 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR, SHAHRUL ANUAR, MARTA S. GRISMER, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, HAYDEN R. DAVIS, CÉSAR AGUILAR, RANDY KLABACKA, ANTHONY J. COBOS, ANCHALEE AOWPHOL, JACK W. SITES, JR 2016. Two new Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex from Peninsular Malaysia and multiple instances of convergent adaptation to limestone forest ecosystems. Zootaxa 4105 (5): 401-429 - get paper here
 
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