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Cyrtodactylus khammouanensis NAZAROV, POYARKOV, ORLOV, NGUYEN, MILTO, MARTYNOV, KONSTANTINOV & CHULISOV, 2014

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesKhammouane Bent-toed Gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus khammouanensis NAZAROV, POYARKOV, ORLOV, NGUYEN, MILTO, MARTYNOV, KONSTANTINOV & CHULISOV 2014 
DistributionLaos (Khammouane)

Type locality: environs of Na Phao Village, Boulapha Dis- trict, Khammouane Province, Laos (17°34 ́57.1 ́ ́N, 105°44 ́37.3 ́ ́E, elevation 170 m a.s.l.).  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. ZMMU R-13982, Adult male, (field number FN 192) collected on 16 June 2009 by Nikolai Orlov, Sang Ngoc Nguyen and Konstantin Milto.
Paratypes. One adult male ZIN 28250 (FN 193) and two adult females ZMMU R-13983 (FN 257); ZIN 28251 (FN 191). All type specimens are with the same data as the holotype. 
CommentDiagnosis. Relatively small Cyrtodactylus with a maximum SVL of 73 mm; the new species is distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following morphological characters. Dorsal pattern consisting of wide dark nuchal band and 4–5 dark wide transverse bands with smooth edges. Widths of interspaces between dorsal bands are less than widths of the bands. Dorsal surface of head is light yellowish, without any clear pattern. Dark wide transverse bands present on the tail. Roundish weakly keeled tubercles present on the dorsum, hind limbs, temporal region of the head, on the tail base and absent on the dorsal surface of the head. Ventrals in 32–38 longitudinal rows at midbody. Lateral folds weakly developed. Continuous series of 40–44 pre- cloacal and femoral pores in males reach the bend of knee. Enlarged femoral scales present, 5–6 enlarged postcloacal spurs in both sexes. Subcaudal scales transversally enlarged in one median row.

Comparisons with Laotian congeners. Cyrto- dactylus khammouanensis sp. nov. differs from C. bu- chardi by the singe median row of subcaudals (vs. subcaudals not enlarged in C. buchardi), enlarged femoral scales (lacking in C. buchardi), fewer dorsal tubercle rows (16 or 21 vs. 25), greater number of ventral scales (32–38 vs. 30), and greater number of subdigital lamellae under the fourth finger and toe (18 or 20 and 20–23 vs. 14 and 12, respectively), moreover, dorsal pattern of the new species consists of six wide regular, dark, transverse bands versus five transverse series of irregular blotches in C. buchardi. From C. interdigitalis the new species clearly differs by transverse enlarged subcaudal scales; higher num- ber of precloacal and femoral pores in the singe row (40–44 in the new species vs. 14 precloacal and 9+9 femoral pores in C. interdigitalis); roundish tail versus flattened tail; dorsal pattern of the new species con- sists of six wide regular, dark, transverse bands versus 4–5 wide brownish transverse bands with jagged edg- es; no webbing between toes versus developed web on the basis of toes. Cyrtodactylus khammouanensis sp. nov. seems to be closely related to recently described C. jaegeri and differs from this species by the follow- ing combination of morphological attributes: the new species has small smooth and round dorsal tubercles in 16–21 irregular longitudinal rows at midbody, which are not present on the occipital region versus round conical dorsal tubercles in 15–17 irregular longitudinal rows which continue on the occipital region, the new species has yellowish head coloration with a wide nuchal loop (approximately the same size as transverse bands, located posteriorly) versus light brown head with narrow nuchal loop (notably more narrow than the subsequent transverse dorsal bands), somewhat greater number of ventral scales (32–38 vs. 31–32). These two species can be further diagnosed by body and head proportions: the new species has relatively smaller head (SVL/HL 3.57 vs. 3.27); com- paratively smaller orbit (HL/OrbD 4.5 vs. 3.89) and comparatively larger temporal region (HL/EyeEar 3.8 vs. 4.81). The new species differs from C. jarujini by the smaller body size (73 mm vs. 90 mm in C. ja- rujini), lesser number of femoral and precloacal pores (40–44 vs. 52–54), dorsal color pattern (banded vs. blotched in C. jarujini). The new species is similar to C. lomyenensis but is distinguishable from it by the following combination of morphological characters: lesser number of dorsal tubercle rows (16–21 vs. 20– 24), continuous row of femoral and precloacal pores reaching the bend of knee versus not reaching at one third in C. lomyenensis, and dorsal pattern (bands with smooth margins vs. bands with wavy margins); furthermore, the new species has relatively smaller orbit (HL/OrbD 4.5 vs. 3.75) and relatively larger temporal region (HL/EyeEar 3.8 vs. 3.3). Cyrtodac- tylus khammouanensis sp. n. differs from C. pageli by the following characters: continuous row of pre- cloacal and femoral pores (40–44 vs. 4–6 precloacal pores), lesser number of ventral scale rows (32–38 vs. 41–46), greater number of enlarged dorsal tubercle rows (16–21 vs. 9–14), and the dorsal pattern (bands with smooth margin vs. bands with wavy margins in C. pageli). The new species is distinguishable from C. roesleri by having a greater number of precloacal and femoral pores (40–44 vs. 20–28) and by dorsal pat- tern (the width of dorsal transverse bands is greater than the widths of interspaces between them vs. the width of dorsal bands is less than of the interspaces in-between). The new species differs from C. teyniei by smaller body size (maximum SVL 73 mm vs. 89.9 mm in C. teyniei), dorsal pattern (bands vs. blotched pattern in C. teyniei), nuchal loop (present vs. absent in C. teyniei). The new species is distinguished from C. puhuensis by having greater number of precloacal and femoral pores (40–44 vs. 5 precloacal pores in C. puhuensis), and by a different dorsal color pattern (dark broad bands vs. light narrow bands).
From C. vilaphongi, the new species can be dis- tinguished by having an enlarged median row of subcaudals and a different dorsal color pattern (dark broad bands vs. narrow yellowish white bands in C. vilaphongi). From C. wayakonei the new species is distinguished by having a greater number of pre- cloacal and femoral pores (40–44 vs. 6–8 precloacal pores), by having a different dorsal color pattern (dark broad bands on the dorsum and no patterns on the head vs. head and dorsum with blotched to reticulated pattern in C. vilaphongi), and by differ- ences in subcaudal scalation (distinctly enlarged median row of subcaudals vs. somewhat enlarged and broadened subcaudals in C. vilaphongi). Cyr- todactylus khammouanensis sp. nov. differs from Cyrtodactylus darevskii sp. nov. by smaller body size (maximum SVL 73 mm vs. 100 mm in C. darevskii sp. nov.), fewer numbers of ventral scales (32–38 vs. 38–46) and dorsal color pattern (wide transverse bands vs. narrow transverse bands). [NAZAROV et al. 2014].

Habitat: sparsely vegetated limestone karst 
EtymologyThe specific epithet of the new species is derived from the name of Khammouane Province of Laos, renowned for its great diversity of Cyrtodactylus geckoes. 
References
  • LUU, VINH QUANG; THOMAS CALAME, Truong QUang Nguyen, MICHAEL BONKOWSKI & THOMAS ZIEGLER 2015. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the limestone forest of Khammouane Province, central Laos. Zootaxa 4058 (3): 388–402
  • LUU, VINH QUANG; Truong QUang Nguyen, MINH DUC LE, MICHAEL BONKOWSKI, THOMAS ZIEGLER 2016. A new species of karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos. Zootaxa 4079 (1): 087–102
  • Nazarov, R.A.; N.A. Poyarkov Jr., N.L. Orlov, N.S. Nguyen, K.D. Milto, A.A. Martynov, E.L. Konstantinov and A.S. Chulisov 2015. A review of genus Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae) in fauna of Laos with description of four new species. Труды Зоологического института РАН 318 (4): 391–423 [Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 318(4):391-423, 2014]
 
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