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Cyrtodactylus mamanwa WELTON, SILER, LINKEM, DIESMOS & BROWN, 2010

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCyrtodactylus mamanwa WELTON, SILER, LINKEM, DIESMOS & BROWN 2010
Gymnodactylus philippinicus — GÜNTHER 1879: 76
Gymnodactylus philippinicus — BOULENGER 1885: 46 (part)
Gymnodactylus agusanensis — TAYLOR 1915: 90
Gymnodactylus agusanensis — TAYLOR 1922: 49
Cyrtodactylus agusanensis — BROWN & ALCALA 1978: 16 (part) 
DistributionPhilippines (Dinagat)

Type locality: Dinagat Island, Dinagat Province, Municipality of Loreto, Barangay Santiago, Sitio Cambinlia (Sudlon), Mt. Cambinlia (10.344° N, 125.618° E, 195 m; WGS84  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9725 (formerly KU 310109; field no. RMB 8380), adult male, collected on 30 July 2007 by Jason B. Fernandez. 
CommentSynonymy after WELTON et al. 2010.

Diagnosis.—Cyrtodactylus mamanwa is distinguished from C. agusanensis by post- cloacal tubercles 4–7 (vs. 8–11); anterior– posterior dorsal band projections moderate (vs. extensive); dark dorsal band enclosing light bands (vs. light bands not enclosed); and cephalic tubercles small (vs. moderate). Cy- rtodactylus mamanwa also shows tendencies toward fewer subdigital lamellae beneath Finger III (18–23 vs. 21–24) and midbody dorsals (95–112 vs. 111–124); and a greater number of scales separating pore-bearing precloacal and femoral scales (15–21 vs. 13– 17).
From C. gubaot (Leyte), C. mamanwa is distinguished by paravertebrals 173–192 (vs. 150–162); venter cream (vs. dark gray with white flecks); the absence (vs. presence) of a canthal stripe; dark dorsal bands enclosing light bands (vs. light bands not enclosed); and cephalic tubercles small (vs. large). Cyrtodac- tylus mamanwa also shows tendencies toward a greater number of paravertebral tubercles (25–31 vs. 19–27).
From C. sumuroi (Samar), C. mamanwa is distinguished by the absence (vs. presence) of a canthal stripe; anterior–posterior dorsal band projections moderate (vs. minimal or absent); cephalic tubercles small (vs. moder- ate); and caudal annuli with dorsal tubercles 7–12 (vs. 3–7). Cyrtodactylus mamanwa also exhibits tendencies toward a greater number of midbody dorsals (95–112 vs. 87–98), mid- body ventrals (57–70 vs. 53–58), and paraver- tebrals (173–192 vs. 163–180).
The new species can be readily diagnosed from all other Philippine congeners by char- acters of body size and scalation (Table 3). Cyrtodactylus mamanwa can be distinguished from C. annulatus, C. tautbatorum, C. jam- bangan, and C. philippinicus by the presence (vs. absence) of femoral pore-bearing scales; it is further distinguished from all these species and C. redimiculus by having a greater number of pore-bearing precloacofemorals; from C. annulatus, C. tautbatorum, and C. jambangan by having a greater number of midbody dorsals and paravertebrals; from C. annulatus, C. tautbatorum, and C. redimicu- lus by having a greater number of midbody tubercle rows; from C. annulatus and C. tautbatorum by having a greater number of subdigital lamellae beneath Toe IV; from C. tautbatorum and C. jambangan by dark dorsal bands enclosing light bands (vs. light bands not enclosed); from C. tautbatorum by having a greater number of subdigital lamellae beneath Finger III and the absence of a canthal stripe; from C. redimiculus by having a greater number of paravertebral tubercles and pronounced anterior–posterior dorsal band projections; and from C. jambangan by having a greater number of caudal annuli with dorsal tubercles. 
EtymologyEtymology.—The specific epithet is chosen in recognition of the rapidly disappearing southern Leyte, Dinagat, and Agusan Del Norte Province indigenous people’s group, the Mamanwa (‘‘people of the mountains’’ or ‘‘first forest dwellers’’). Believed by some archeologists and anthropologists to be the oldest tribal group in the Philippines, the history of the Mamanwa is characterized by peace; seasonal movements of clan groups to follow food sources; and recently, mass tribal migration to escape logging and mining com- pany intrusion into their ancestral homelands. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown W C; Alcala A C 1978. Philippine lizards of the family Gekkonidae. Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines 1978: i-vii, 1-146
  • Günther, A. 1879. List of mammals, reptiles, and batrachians sent by Mr. Everett from the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1879: 74-79 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814
  • Taylor, E.H. 1915. New species of Philippine lizards. Philip. J. Sci. 10: 89-109
  • Taylor,E.H. 1922. The lizards of the Philippine Islands. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Government of the Philippine Islands, Manila, Publication no. 17: 269 pp. - get paper here
  • Welton, Luke J.; Cameron D. Siler, Charles W. Linkem, Arvin C. Diesmos, and Rafe M. Brown 2010. Philippine Bent-Toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus agusanensis Complex: Multilocus Phylogeny, Morphological Diversity, and Descriptions of Three New Species. Herpetological Monographs 24 (1): 55-85 - get paper here
 
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