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Cyrtodactylus muluensis DAVIS, BAUER, JACKMAN, NASHRIQ & DAS, 2019

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Mulu Bent-Toed Gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus muluensis DAVIS, BAUER, JACKMAN, NASHRIQ & DAS 2019 
DistributionEast Malaysia (Sarawak, Borneo)

Type locality: Lang Cave, Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia. (04°1'34.34"N; 114°49'26.77"E; 155 m elevation; WGS 1984),  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CAS 262983, adult male, collected by Izneil Nashriq and Hayden Davis on July 21, 2017 at 20:00–22:00 hrs.
Paratypes: CAS 262984; CAS 262986; (Figs. 1 & 2 in Davis et al. 2019)) have the same collection data as the holotype. Paratypes CAS 262995–262997 were collected from the karst surfaces situated between Clearwater Cave and Long Cave (04°3'47.048"N; 114°49'50.60"E; 205 m; WGS 1984), on July 23, 2017. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus muluensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Cyrtodactylus by the combination of the following characters: maximum SVL of at least 88 mm; 10–13 supralabials; 8–11 infralabials; weak tuberculation on body; no tubercles on ventral surface of forelimbs, gular region, or ventrolateral folds; 33–54 paravertebral tubercles; 13–15 longitudinal tubercle rows; 33–42 ventral scales; 19–22 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; 5 femoro-precloacal pores; enlarged median row of transverse scales; shallow precloacal groove in males; 5–8 dark dorsal body bands; body bands as wide as or slightly wider than interspaces; no rostral chevron; no white line edging the body bands and nuchal loop; banding pattern on dorsal side of body; no scattered white tubercles on dorsum; and nine dark caudal bands on original tail. These characters are scored across all currently described Bornean Cyrtodactylus species in Table 4 in Davis et al. 2019: 344.

Comparison. Cyrtodactylus muluensis sp. nov. differs from all its Bornean congeners by one or more morphological characteristics. The new species is distinguished from C. baluensis (Mocquard) by having a precloacal groove as opposed to a precloacal pit, and a distinct banding pattern as opposed to bands and blotches; it is distinguished from C. cavernicolus by having a lower number of ventral scales (31–38 versus 51–58), fewer subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe (19–22 versus 22–26), and distinct dorsal bands as opposed to dorsal bands and blotches; it is distinguished from C. consobrinus by having a smaller adult maximum SVL (88 mm versus 125 mm), and no white reticulated pattern on occiput; it is distinguished from C. ingeri Hikida by having a precloacal groove as opposed to no depression, and a distinct banding pattern as opposed to bands and blotches; it is distinguished from C. malayanus (de Rooij) by having a lower number of ventral scales (33–42 versus 58–62), and no tubercles on the upper arm; it is distinguished from C. matsuii Hikida by having a lower maximum SVL (88 mm versus 105 mm), enlarged subcaudals, and a lower number of ventral scales (33–42 versus 48–51); it is distinguished from C. pubisulcus Inger by having a larger maximum SVL (88 mm versus 74 mm), and a distinct banding pattern as opposed to primarily blotches; and it is distinguished from C. yoshii Hikida by having fewer subdigital lamellae (19–22 versus 25–30), enlarged subcaudals, and a lower number of ventral scales (33–42 versus 50–58). 
CommentSympatry: Cyrtodactylus consobrinus and C. cf. pubisulcus. However, C. consobrinus was seen almost exclusively on large tree trunks and C. cf. pubisulcus was almost exclusively on low-lying vegetation, indicating that they may not be syntopic with one another. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet muluensis is in reference to the type locality, Gunung Mulu National Park. As this is the first endemic gekkonid described from Gunung Mulu, the name muluensis is fitting. 
References
  • DAVIS, HAYDEN R.; AARON M. BAUER, TODD R. JACKMAN, IZNEIL NASHRIQ & INDRANEIL DAS 2019. Uncovering karst endemism within Borneo: two new Cyrtodactylus species from Sarawak, Malaysia. Zootaxa 4614 (2): 331–352 - get paper here
 
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