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Cyrtodactylus soni LE, NGUYEN, LE & ZIEGLER, 2016

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Son’s Bent-toed Gecko (English)
Vietnamese: Thạch sùng ngón sơn 
SynonymCyrtodactylus soni LE, NGUYEN, LE & ZIEGLER 2016 
DistributionVietnam (Ninh Binh)

Type locality: karst forest near Da Han Village (20o25.067’N, 105o51.467’E, elevation 17 m a.s.l.), Gia Hoa Commune, within Van Long Wetland Nature Reserve, Gia Vien District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. HNUE VL.2015.78, adult male, collected on 24 July 2015 by D. T. Le, A. M. Luong, D. T. Pham, and N. H. Nguyen.
Paratypes. IEBR R.2016.4, adult female, HNUE VL.2015.94, adult female, collected on 24 July 2015; IEBR R.2016.5, adult male, HNUE VL.2015.131, adult female, and HNUE VL.2015.132, adult female, collected on 18 August 2015, the same data as the holotype. 
CommentDiagnosis. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Indochina by a combination of the following characters: medium size (SVL up to 103 mm); internasal single; dorsal tubercles in 10–13 irregular rows; ventral scale rows 41–45; lateral skin folds present, without interspersed tubercles; precloacal pores 6 or 7 in males, 7 or 8 pitted scales in females, in a continuous row; femoral pores 6–8 on each side in males, separated by 8–11 poreless scales from precloacal pore series; enlarged femoral scales present; postcloacal spurs 2 or 3; subcaudal scales transversely enlarged; lamellae under toe IV 18–22; dorsal pattern consisting of a dark nuchal loop, a continuous or partly interrupted neck band, and five or six in part irregular transverse body bands between limb insertions.

Comparisons. We compared the new species with its congeners from Vietnam and neighbouring countries in mainland Indochina, including Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand based on the examination of specimens (see Appendix) and data obtained from the literature (Bauer et al. 2002, 2003, 2010; David et al. 2004, 2011; Geissler et al. 2009; Hoang et al. 2007; Kunya et al. 2014, 2015; Luu et al. 2011, 2014, 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c; Nazarov et al. 2008, 2012, 2014; Ngo 2011, 2013; Ngo & Grismer 2010; Ngo & Chan 2011; Nguyen et al. 2010, 2015; Nguyen et al. 2013, 2014; Panitvong et al. 2014 ; Pauwels & Sumontha 2014; Pauwels et al. 2013, 2014a, 2014b, 2016; Phung et al. 2014; Schneider et al. 2011, 2014 a, 2014b; Smith 1921; Sumontha et al. 2015; Ziegler et al. 2010, 2013).
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. has distinctly enlarged subcaudals, which are only slightly or not enlarged in the following species: C. bidoupimontis Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Phung, Nguyen, Hoang & Ziegler, C. buchardi David, Teyni & Ohler, C. bugiamapensis Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Phung, Nguyen, Hoang & Ziegler, C. cattienensis Geissler, Nazarov, Orlov, Böhme, Phung, Nguyen & Ziegler, C. cryptus Heidrich, Rösler, Vu, Böhme & Ziegler, C. cucdongensis Schneider, Phung, Le, Nguyen & Ziegler, C. huynhi Ngo & Bauer, C. irregularis (Smith), C. otai Nguyen, Le, Pham, Ngo, Hoang, Pham & Ziegler, C. phuocbinhensis Nguyen, Le, Tran, Orlov, Lathrop, Macculloch, Le, Jin, Nguyen, Nguyen, Hoang, Che, Murphy & Zhang, C. pseudoquadrivirgatus Rösler, Nguyen, Vu, Ngo & Ziegler, C. quadrivirgatus Taylor, C. ranongensis Sumontha, Pauwels, Panitvong, Kunya & Grismer, C. taynguyenensis Nguyen, Le, Tran, Orlov, Lathrop, Macculloch, Le, Jin, Nguyen, Nguyen, Hoang, Che, Murphy & Zhang, C. thuongae Phung, van Schingen, Ziegler & Nguyen, C. vilaphongi Schneider, Nguyen, Le, Nophaseud, Bonkowski & Ziegler, and C. ziegleri Nazarov, Orlov, Nguyen & Ho.
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. has enlarged femoral scales which are absent in C. angularis (Smith), C. badenensis Nguyen, Orlov & Darevsky, C. bobrovi Nguyen, Le, Pham, Ngo, Hoang, Pham & Ziegler, C. buchardi, C. chauquangensis Hoang, Orlov, Ananjeva, Johns, Hoang & Dau, C. cryptus, C. grismeri Ngo, C. nigriocularis Nguyen, Orlov & Darevsky, C. otai, C. pageli Schneider, Nguyen, Schmitz, Kingsada, Auer & Ziegler, C. pseudoquadrivirgatus, C. sumonthai Bauer, Pauwels & Chanhome, C. taynguyenensis, C. vilaphongi, and C. wayakonei Nguyen, Kingsada, Rösler, Auer & Ziegler.
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. has more femoral and precloacal pores in males (6–7+6–7+6–8) than the following species: C. angularis (3), C. condorensis (Smith) (0–4), C. kunyai Pauwels, Sumontha, Keeratikiat & Phanamphon (5+3+6), C. martini (4), C. nigriocularis (0–2), C. oldhami (1–4), C. pageli (4), C. phetchaburiensis Pauwels, Sumontha & Bauer (0+5+0), C. quadrivirgatus (4), C. sumonthai (2), C. sanook Pauwels, Sumontha, Latinne & Grismer (3 or 4), C. sayiok Panitvong, Sumontha, Tunprasert & Pauwels (0+5+0), C. takouensis Ngo & Bauer (3 or 4), and absent in C. badenensis, C. cucphuongensis, C. eisenmanae Ngo, C. grismeri, and C. ranongensis.
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. has more femoral and precloacal pores (or pitted scales) in females (6–8+7–8+5–6) than the following species: C. angularis (3), C. cucdongensis (4–6), C. dumnuii Bauer, Kunya, Sumontha, Niyomwan, Pauwels, Chanhome & Kunya (0+0–7+0), C. irregularis (0–6), C. pageli (4), C. quadrivirgatus (4); femoral and precloacal pores (or pitted scales) are absent in the females of C. auribalteatus Sumontha, Panitvong & Deein, C. badenensis, C. bidoupimontis, C. bobrovi, C. buchardi, C. caovansungi Orlov, Nguyen, Nazarov, Ananjeva & Nguyen, C. cattienensis, C. condorensis, C. cryptus, C. eisenmanae, C. grismeri, C. interdigitalis Ulber, C. jarujini Ulber, C. martini, C. multiporus Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Nguyen, Milto, Martynov, Konstantinov & Chulisov, C. nigriocularis, C. otai, C. phuocbinhensis, C. sanook, C. soudthichaki Luu, Calame, Nguyen, Bonkowski & Ziegler, C. spelaeus Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Nguyen, Milto, Martynov, Konstantinov & Chulisov, C. sumonthai, C. takouensis, C. taynguyenensis, C. thuongae, C. thirakhupti, C. vilaphongi, and C. yangbayensis Ngo & Chan.
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. differs from the following species by having fewer femoral and precloacal pores in males (6–7+6–7+6–8): C. astrum Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Muin, Sumontha, Ahmad, Bauer, Wangkulangkul, Grismer & Pauwels (31–38), C. bansocensis Luu, Nguyen, Le, Bonkowski & Ziegler (34), C. calamei Luu, Bonkowski, Nguyen, Le, Schneider, Ngo & Ziegler (35–39), C. chanhomeae Bauer, Sumontha & Pauwels (32), C. darevskii Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Nguyen, Milto, Martynov, Konstantinov & Chulisov (38–44), C. erythrops Bauer, Kunya, Sumontha, Niyomwan, Panitvong, Pauwels, Chanhome & Kunya (10+9+9), C. hinnamnoensis Luu, Bonkowski, Nguyen, Le, Schneider, Ngo & Ziegler (36–44), C. jaegeri Luu, Calame, Bonkowski, Nguyen & Ziegler (44), C. jarujini (52–54), C. khammouanensis Nazarov, Poyarkov, Orlov, Nguyen, Milto, Martynov, Konstantinov & Chulisov (40–44), C. lekaguli Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Muin, Sumontha, Ahmad, Bauer, Wangkulangkul, Grismer & Pauwels (31–41), C. lomyenensis Ngo & Pauwels (39–40), C. multiporus (58–60), C. phongnhakebangensis Ziegler, Rösler, Herrmann & Vu (32–42), C. rufford Luu, Calame, Nguyen, Le, Bonkowski & Ziegler (42–43), C. sommerladi Luu, Bonkowski, Nguyen, Le, Schneider, Ngo & Ziegler (20–26), and C. soudthichaki (29).
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. has a dorsum with banded color pattern, which is blotched in C. brevipalmatus (Smith), C. buchardi, C. bugiamapensis, C. erythrops, C. irregularis, C. jarujini, C. phetchaburiensis, C. phuocbinhensis, C. pseudoquadrivirgatus, C. taynguyenensis, C. teyniei David, Nguyen, Schneider & Ziegler, and C. thuongae; the dorsum is uniformly brown in C. nigriocularis and striped in C. oldhami, C. quadrivirgatus, and C. ranongensis.
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. differs from C. kingsadai Ziegler, Phung, Le & Nguyen by having fewer dorsal tubercle rows (10–13 vs. 17–23 in C. kingsadai).
Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. differs from the following species by having more ventral scale rows (41–45): C. badenensis (25–29), C. bichnganae (30–31), C. buchardi (30), C. chanhomeae (36–38), C. chauquangensis (36– 38), C. doisuthep Kunya, Panmongkol, Pauwels, Sumontha, Meewasana, Bunkhwamdi & Dangsri (29–35), C. erythrops (28), C. grismeri (33–38), C. inthanon Kunya, Sumontha, Panitvong, Dongkumfu, Sirisamphan & Pauwels (29–34), C. jaegeri (31–32), C. jarujini (32–38), C. khammouanensis (32–38), C. khelangensis Pauwels, Sumontha, Panitvong & Varaguttanonda (32–35), C. lomyenensis (35–36), C. multiporus (30–38), C. oldhami (34– 38), C. puhuensis Nguyen, Yang, Le, Nguyen, Orlov, Hoang, Nguyen, Jin, Rao, Hoang, Che, Murphy & Zhang (36), C. rufford (27–29), C. sanook (27–28), C. soudthichaki (32–33), C. spelaeus (36–39), C. sumonthai (33–36), C. teyniei (38), C. tigroides (34), C. vilaphongi (34–36), C. wayakonei (31–35), and C. ziegleri (33–39).
Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus soni sp. nov. is most similar to C. huongsonensis but it differs from the latter by having fewer femoral and precloacal pores (6–7+6–7+6–8 in males vs. 10+6+7 in C. huongsonensis) and more spinous ciliaries (31–33 vs. 26–28 in C. huongsonensis).

Habitat: Specimens were found at night between 18:30 and 21:00, on limestone cliffs and in rock crevices, approximately 0.3–1.5 m above the ground, at elevations between 17–28 m a.s.l. The surrounding habitat consisted of secondary karst forest of medium and small hardwoods mixed with shrubs and vines (Fig. 6). Air temperature ranged from 25 to 32.1oC and relative humidity was 70–90%. 
EtymologyWe name this new species in honor of our colleague and friend, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Son Lan Hung Nguyen, Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam, in recognition of his support of our research and conservation work in Vietnam. 
References
  • LE, DZUNG TRUNG; TRUONG QUANG NGUYEN, MINH DUC LE, THOMAS ZIEGLER 2016. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. Zootaxa 4162 (2): 268–282 - get paper here
 
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