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Darevskia rudis (BEDRIAGA, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Darevskia rudis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesDarevskia rudis bolkardaghica ARRIBAS ILGAZ, KUMLUTAŞ, DURMUŞ, AVCI & ÜZÜM 2013
Darevskia rudis chechenica (EISELT & DAREVSKY 1991)
Darevskia rudis lantzicyreni (DAREVSKY & EISELT 1967)
Darevskia rudis rudis (BEDRIAGA 1886)
Darevskia rudis svanetica (DAREVSKY & EISELT 1980) 
Common NamesG: Grusinische Eidechse, Kielschwanz-Felseidechse
Russian: Грузинская ящерица 
SynonymLacerta depressa rudis BEDRIAGA 1886: 275
Podarcis depressa CAMERANO 1878 (part.)
Lacerta depressa rudis — BEDRIAGA 1886
Lacerta depressa — WERNER 1902
Lacerta depressa — WERNER 1904
Lacerta saxicola var. rudis — MEHELY 1909: 493, 529
Lacerta muralis var. rudis — BOULENGER 1920: 290
Lacerta saxicola rudis MEHELY 1909
Lacerta depressa — BIRD 1936: 268
Lacerta rudis — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta rudis — FU & MURPHY 1997
Darevskia rudis — ARRIBAS 1997
Darevskia rudis — MURPHY et al. 2000
Archaeolacerta (Caucasilacerta) rudis — SINDACO et al. 2000
Lacerta rudis — SZCZERBAK 2003
Darevskia rudis — ARNOLD et al. 2007
Darevskia rudis rudis (BEDRIAGA 1886)
Darevskia rudis — GABELAIA et al. 2018
Darevskia rudis — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020
Darevskia rudis rudis — ARRIBAS et al. 2022

Darevskia rudis bolkardaghica ARRIBAS et al. 2013
Darevskia rudis bolkardaghica — MAYER 2015
Darevskia rudis bolkardaghica — ARRIBAS et al. 2022

Darevskia rudis chechenica (EISELT & DAREVSKY 1991)
Lacerta rudis chechenica — ROITBERG et al. 2000
Darevskia rudis chechenica — BISCHOFF 2002
Lacerta (Darevskia) rudis chechenica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Darevskia rudis lantzicyreni (DAREVSKY & EISELT 1967)
Lacerta saxicola mehelyi LANTZ & CYRÉN 1936
Lacerta saxicola lantzicyreni DAREVSKY & EISELT 1967 (nomen novum)
Darevskia valentini lantzicyreni — BISCHOFF 2007
Lacerta (Darevskia) valentini lantzicyreni — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Darevskia rudis lantzicyreni — ARRIBAS et al. 2022

Darevskia rudis svanetica (DAREVSKY & EISELT 1980)
Lacerta (Darevskia) rudis svanetica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Darevskia rudis svanetica — GEMEL et al. 2019 
DistributionTurkey (Trabzon region, Uludag), SE Black Sea coast in Republic of Georgia and Turkey, Russia (northern slope of the central Caucasus, Dagestan), S/W Republic of Georgia (southern slope of the central Caucasus, upper Kura valley, Small Caucasus, southern slope of the central Caucasus, west of L. r. chechenica) and adjacent Turkey, NW Azerbaijan; elevation up to 2000 m.

bolkardaghica: Turkey (C Anatolia); Type locality: Karagöl, Ulukışla, Niğde, Central Anatolia; “Turkey, Mersin Province, rocks vicinity of Karagöl Lake, 37°24 ́13 ́ ́N 34°33 ́27 ́ ́E” fide Doronin 2017.

chechenica: S Russia (Caucasus mountains; Daghestan); Type locality: Russia, Chechnya Shatoysky District, gorge of the Argun River 4 km higher (north) of the Sovetskoye (= Shatoy) village, 1500 m asl, 42°54 ́41 ́ ́N 45°42 ́56 ́ ́E; paratypes: NMW; paratype locality: Südabfall des zentralen Kaukasus, Pasanauri, Georgien.

lantzicyreni: Turkey; Type locality: Turkey, Ercies Mountain.

svanetica: C Great Caucasus; NE Republic of Georgia, NW Abkhazia. Type locality: Georgia, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Region, vicinity of Mestia, 43°03 ́N, 42°45 ́E, 1700 m asl;Paratype locality: Pari im Inguri-Tal, Swanetien

Type locality: Batumi (Republic of Georgia) and Trabzon (Turkey)  
TypesLectotype: MRSN (= MSNTO = MZUT) 2737:1 (Museo ed Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica, Torino), designated by Böhme and Budak 1977.
Holotype: ZDEU 144/2009.6, 19.07.2009. Coll.: Y. Kumlutaş [bolkardaghica]
Holotype: NMW 33504.1, 6.08.1965; ZISP 17882:1, male fide Böhme 2014: 150; Coll.: I.S. Darevsky; Paratypes: ZFMK, ZIL, NMW [chechenica]
Lectotype: GNM (Natural History Museum Gothenburg) 2459, 07.06.1927, Coll. O. Cyrén [lantzicyreni]
Holotype: ZISP 17875.1 (Fig. 10 in Doronin 2017), 13.08.1965. Coll.: I.S. Darevsky [svanetica] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (bolkardaghica). A dorsally very clear-toned D. rudis characterized by separated rostral and frontonasal scales. Supraciliar granula series are usually complete and uninterrupted. The massseteric plate is smaller or similar to the tympanic plate. The number of scales between masseteric and tympanic range from 2 to 4. Scales are tight and moderately keeled. Numerous dorsalia and relatively long heads (head index). Low values for femoralia, lamellae, hindlimb length, circumanalia and anal size. Relatively high maxillar and dentary teeth counts for its size. Sternal fontanelle with odd, irregular shapes (such as sand-clock or nearly cordiform). Postfrontal and postorbitary subequal. Postorbitary overlaps with squamosal along near one half of its length. Holotype. ZDEU 144/2009, paratypes in ZDEU.

Diagnosis (mirabilis). A Darevskia rudis is characterized by having rostral and frontonasal plates either in contact or separated (in contact in 50% specimens). Supraciliar granula almost always in an interrupted row. Masseteric plate longer than the tympanic one, separated only by a single row (rarely more) of scales. Tibial scales moderately keeled. Relatively high (for D. rudis) values for dorsalia, circumanalia, and relative anal-plate size. Relatively low values for femoralia and hindlimb length as well as short head. Postfrontal and postorbitary subequal (or postfrontal only slightly longer than postocular). Interclavicle cruciform, with tips not incurved. Holotype: ZDEU 145/2002, paratypes in ZDEU.

Diagnosis (svanetica): (n=26) Eine sehr kräftige Unterart von Lacerta rudis (KRL bis 86 mm); unterscheidet sich sowohl von der Nominatform als auch von L. rudis bischoffi deutlich in der Pholidose und in der Lebendfärbung der Körper-Unterseiten (Tabelle 1); allgemein zeigt sich eine Größenzunahme der Körperschuppen und anderer Elemente der Pholidose, was sich in ihren geringeren Zahlenwerten ausdrückt. 
CommentSynonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). RYABININA et al. (2002) question the separation of bischoffi and obscura. ARRIBAS et a. 2013 suggest that macromaculata is a synonym of boscura.

Subspecies: Darevskia rudis bithynica (MÉHELY, 1909) has been elevated to species status, with D. r. tristis as subspecies. Gabelaia et al. 2018 elevated D. r. obscura to full species status, based on scalation characters. We do not follow this for the time being, given that these authors did not provide an updated diagnosis of the (sub-) species. Lantz & Cyren 1936 did provide a diagnosis (in french) but did not illustrate the diagnostic characters. The status of D. r. chechenica, and D. r. svanetica remains unresolved (Arribas et al. 2022: 25).

Relationships: in Turkey, only minor genetic differences separated D. rudis and D. bithynica populations (Koç et al. 2021). 
EtymologyThe subspecies name is feminine “mirabilis” and means wonderful, amazing, unique and miraculous in Latin. The name refers to its vivid and beautiful coloration in respect to other D. rudis subspecies.

The name bolkardaghica stems from the name of the mountains where the lizards were collected: Bolkar Da ı (also spelled Bulghar Dagh) in the Taurus Mountains.

D. r. svanetica was named after the (German) name "Swanetien" for the rocky area in the north of Grusinia.
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