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Dendragama dioidema HARVEY, SHANEY, SIDIK, KURNIAWAN & SMITH, 2017

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymDendragama dioidema HARVEY, SHANEY, SIDIK, KURNIAWAN & SMITH 2017 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra)

Type locality: Bukit Sama, Kampung Telege Atu, Kebayakan, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.66512°N, 96.80937°E, 1567 m  
Reproductionoviparous; Harvey et al. 2017 concluded that Dendragama australis normally has a clutch size of four and reaches sexual maturity around 60 mm SVL. Presence of eggs in pairs and in up to four developmental stages strongly suggests that female D. australis produce multiple clutches per year. 
TypesHolotype: MZB 13814, adult male (collector’s tag ENS 19450; Fig. 12), collected 5 August 2015 by I. Sidik, I. Fonna, and P. Thammachoti. Paratypes: (42) (note missing ° symbols in coordinates); Three males (MZB 13794; UTA 63448, 63449), six females (MZB 13804, 13805; UTA 63438, 63440, 63441, 63446), and 15 unsexed specimens (MZB 13795– 13803; UTA 63439, 63442–63445, 63447) from Kute Baru, Linge, along road from Takengon to Isaq, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.528758N, 96.853168E, 1827 m, collected on 5 August 2015 by E. Wostl, I. Fonna and M. Ikhsan; one unsexed specimen (UTA 63450) from foot of Berni Terlong, near Desa Rambune, Kabupaten Bener Meriah, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.76488N, 96.801968E, 1471 m, collected on 7 August 2015 by G.C. Sarker, I. Sidik, I. Fonna and M. Ikhsan; four male (MZB 13807, 13808, 13810; UTA 63452) and two unsexed specimens (MZB 13809; UTA 63453) from Beutong Ule, high point on Meulaboh-Takengon road, Kabupaten Nagan Raya, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.383678N, 96.516338E, 1950 m, collected on 5 August 2015 by E. Wostl, E.N. Smith, G.C. Sarker and P. Thammachoti; one male (MZB 13811), three females (UTA 63456–63458), and three unsexed specimens (MZB 13812, 13813; UTA 63455) from Bukit Sama, Kampung Telege Atu, Kebayakan, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.66512–4.665838N, 96.80627–96.809378E, collected 5 August 2015 by I. Sidik, I. Fonna, and P. Thammachoti; one male (UTA 63460), one female (MZB 13815), and two unsexed specimens (MZB 13816; UTA 63459) from Hutan Timang Gajah, Gunung Burni Telong, Kabupaten Bener Meriah, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia, 4.77122–4.771428N, 96.80907–96.810178E, 1875–1957 m, collected on 7 August 2015 by E. Wostl, P. Thammachoti, A.M. Khadafi, and I. Fonna. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—The following combination of characters distinguishes Dendragama dioidema from its congeners: (1) enlarged scales below eye broadly contacting supralabials; (2) tympanum relatively large (11–16% of head length) and close to eye (orbit–meatus 23–29% of head length); (3) sublabial tubercular scales 0–2, usually 1, in front of postrictal modified scale; (4) gulars large, 16–22; (5) dorsal crest of 9–19 projecting scales, serrate with obvious gaps between enlarged projecting scales; (6) dorsolateral crest of more or less continuous posttympanic and dorsolateral series; (7) scales around midbody 57–77; (8) scales of lower flanks heterogenous in size, smooth to feebly keeled; (9) ventrals smooth or very feebly keeled, 49–63; (10) no white sublabial stripe; however, one or two white or pale yellow spots (corresponding to sublabial tubercular scale and postrictal modified scales) usually present in area below rictus and ear; (11) no distinctive prescapular blotch edged posteriorly in white; band crossing neck interrupted by narrow white or yellow line; (12) proximal half of tail with 6– 10 dark brown or green bands; (13) buccal epithelium cream, tongue pink to red.

Coloration and color change.—In life, Dendragama dioidema is usually green or brown and, as for congeners, this species can darken both its pattern and hue. Dorsal head scales are extensively edged in dark brown or black whereas sides of the head are mostly green or light brown. Irregular bands of black pigment radiate out from the eye but are interrupted by an immaculate green or light brown ring of palpebrals edging the eye. Most specimens have a pair of white or yellow bands below and behind the corner of the mouth: one extending downward and backward from the posterior infralabials or rictus to cover the large sublabial tubercular scale and another with the same orientation extending from the lower border of the auditory meatus to cover the postrictal modified scale. In some specimens, the bands are absent, but the sublabial tubercular scale and postrictal modified scale are nonetheless immaculate yellow or white. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe new name dioidema is a masculine noun in apposition derived from the Greek prefix di, meaning two, and noun oidema, meaning protuberance. The name refers to the pair of distinctive tubercular scales positioned slightly below and behind the rictus in this species. Unlike some congeners, Dendragama dioidema usually has a single, large sublabial tubercular scale positioned in front of the postrictal modified scale. 
References
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Kyle Shaney, Irvan Sidik, Nia Kurniawan, and Eric N. Smith 2017. Endemic Dragons of Sumatra’s Volcanoes: New Species of Dendragama (Squamata: Agamidae) and Status of Salea rosaceum Thominot Herpetological Monographs 31 (1): 69–97 - get paper here
 
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