Dendrophidion brunneum (GÜNTHER, 1858)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Dendrophidion brunneum?
|Higher Taxa||Colubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Common Names||Günther's Forest Racer|
|Synonym||Herpetodryas brunneus GÜNTHER 1858: 116|
Dendrophidion brunneum - PETERS 1960: 122
Dendrophidion brunneum — CADLE 2010
Dendrophidion brunneum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 224
Dendrophidion brunneus — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
|Distribution||Peru (Cajamarca, Piura, Tumbes), Ecuador|
Type locality: Guayaquil, Ecuador Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Types||Holotype: BMNH 19220.127.116.11|
|Comment||Distribution: see map in Cadle 2012 (Figure 37).|
Diagnosis. Dendrophidion brunneum is characterized by 17 midbody scale rows, reducing to 15 (rarely 13) posteriorly; dorsocaudal reduction from eight to six anterior to subcaudal 25; ventrals fewer than 155 in males, fewer than 170 in females; subcaudals fewer than 160. Tail 40–44 % of total length (67–80% of SVL) in males, 38–41% of total length (61–71% of SVL) in females; and dorsal coloration usually green to olive (brown or bluish in some specimens) and usually without stripes or crossbars (anterior body, especially the head, often with brighter hues or a different color from the posterior body) (Fig. 1). The everted hemipenis is unique among known hemipenes of Dendrophidion in having a greatly expanded, globose distal region and a very short segment of the hemipenial body proximal to the expanded region (see Hemipenial Morphology of Dendrophidion brunneum). Scale counts of many species of Dendrophidion overlap extensively (Lieb 1988: Table 1) and color patterns are often the most reliable characters for identifications. In D. dendrophis, D. nuchale, and D. vinitor the dorsocaudal reduction from eight to six occurs posterior to subcaudal 25. Of the species in which the dorsocaudal reduction occurs anterior to subcaudal 25, D. paucicarinatum has more than 175 ventrals (Lieb 1988), D. bivittatum (Duméril, Bibron, & Duméril) has broad blackish paravertebral stripes and distinct lateral stripes on the posterior body and tail, and D. boshelli Dunn has only 15 midbody scale rows. Confusion of D. brunneum is most likely to be with the two species distributed in the same general region in western Ecuador, D. nuchale and D. percarinatum (Lieb 1988, 1991a, 1996). Both of these species occur primarily in the lowlands, whereas D. brunneum is primarily a species of the Andean slopes (see Distribution). Dendrophidion nuchale usually has a black nuchal collar, often has pale ocelli on the posterior body, and the dorsocaudal reduction occurs posterior to subcaudal 25 (Lieb 1988, Savage 2002). Specimens of D. percarinatum from western Ecuador usually have distinct narrow (< 1 scale wide) pale crossbands anteriorly (sometimes extending for a greater portion of the body) and a variably complete longitudinal dark stripe on scale rows 2 and/or 3 posteriorly. In preserved specimens of all three species the details of color patterns can be difficult to discern. Viewing the pattern under alcohol in good light usually reveals the pale crossbands or ocelli in D. nuchale and D. percarinatum. Dendrophidion brunneum also has a rather rectangular loreal scale that is longer than tall, whereas the loreal in D. percarinatum and D. nuchale is an irregular polygon as tall as, or often taller than, it is long.
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