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Dipsas mikanii (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymDipsas mikanii SCHLEGEL 1837: 277
Sibynomorphus mikanii — FITZINGER 1843
Anholodon mikanii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1165
Leptognathus mikanii — GÜNTHER 1858
Leptognathus Mikanii — BOULENGER 1886: 436
Leptognathus garmani COPE 1887: 60
Leptognathus mikanii — BOULENGER (3): 453
Sibynomorphus mikanii — AMARAL 1929
Sibynomorphus mikanii mikanii — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Sibynomorphus mikanii septentrionalis DA CUNHA et al. 1980
Sibynomorphus mikanii — CEI 1993
Sibynomorphus garmani — DE LEMA 2002
Sibynomorphus mikanii — CADLE & MYERS 2003: 39
Sibynomorphus mikanii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 670
Dipsas mikanii — ARTEAGA et al. 2018 
DistributionSE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Norte, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Paraná, Mato Grosso, Para [HR 34:266], Goias, Bahia, S Ceará, Piauí, Paraíba), Argentina (Misiones), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Brazil

septentrionalis: Brazil (Maranhão). Type locality: Puraqueu, on Hwy. BR-222, Maranhao, Brasil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: NMW with 167 ventrals and 46 subcaudals (Natterer), designated by Peters, 1960b: 153.
Holotype: ANSP 11201; Brazil, Sao Joao do Rio Negro [Leptognathus garmani COPE 1887] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy: AMARAL 1926 synonymized Anholodon with Sibynomorphus.

Type species: Dipsas mikanii SCHLEGEL 1837: 277 is the type species of the genus Sibynomorphus FITZINGER 1843. Arteaga et al. 2018 synonymized with Dipsas.

Habitat: all species of Sibynomorphus are terrestrial, hence the name “Tree Snake” is inappropriate for these species (T. de Lema, pers. comm., 16 Oct 2015).

Diet: primarily molluscs, snails, slugs (Santos et al. 2017). 
EtymologyProbably named after Johann Christian Mikan (1769-1844). S. garmani is now considered as a valid species by several authors. 
References
  • Albuquerque, Cristina España & Hebert Ferrarezzi 2004. A case of communal nesting in the neotropical snake Sibynomorphus mikanii (Serpentes, Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 73-77 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1926. 2.a nota de nomenclatura Ophiologica. Sobre o emprego do nome generico Sibynomorphus em vez de ‘‘ Leptognathus’’, ‘‘Stremmatognathus’’, ‘‘Anholodon’’, etc. Revista do Museu Paulista 14: 7–9
  • Arteaga A, Salazar-Valenzuela D, Mebert K, Peñafiel N, Aguiar G, Sánchez-Nivicela JC, Pyron RA, Colston TJ, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Yánez-Muñoz MH, Venegas PJ, Guayasamin JM, Torres-Carvajal O 2018. Systematics of South American snail-eating snakes (Serpentes, Dipsadini), with the description of five new species from Ecuador and Peru. ZooKeys 766: 79-147 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cacciali-Sosa, Pier 2006. Las serpientes caracoleras (Colubridae: Dipsadini) de Paraguay Revista Española de Herpetología 20: 71-85 - get paper here
  • Cadle, J.E. & Myers, C.W. 2003. Systematics of Snakes Referred to Dipsas variegata in Panama and Western South America, with Revalidation of Two Species and Notes on Defensive Behaviors in the Dipsadini (Colubridae). American Museum Novitates 3409: 1-47 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Synopsis of the Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by H. H. Smith in the Province of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 44-60 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. da; Nascimento,F.P. & Hoge 1980. Ofidios da Amazonia. 12. Uma subespecie nova de Sibynomorphus mikani do noroeste do Maranhao (Ophidia: Colubridae, Dipsadinae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Serie Zoologia No. 103 1980:1-15.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • FRANCO, F. L., P. SANCHES, C. A. FALCETTI, AND R. FERNANDES 2003. Designação de lectótipo para Sibynomorphus neuwiedi (Ihering, 1911) e redescrição do holótipo de Leptognathus garmani Cope, 1887 (Serpentes, Colubridae; Dipsadinae). IV Simpósio do Programa BIOTA/FAPESP, 2003, Águas de Lindóia. Anais do IV Simpósio do Programa BIOTA/FAPESP, 2003. - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Breno Almeida Almeida, Milena S.M.Almeida Almeida, Thayana Salgado Danin, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa Moura 2014. Rediscovery and first record of Sibynomorphus mikanii septentrionalis (Cunha, Nascimento & Hoge, 1980), (Squamata; Serpentes) for the state of Pará. Check List 10 (5): 1246-1248 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Guarino R. Colli, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Luiz Trinchão, Daniel Araújo, Tiago de Oliveira Lima, Daniella Pereira Fagundes de França, Renato Gaiga, Pedro Dias 2016. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil. Check List 12 (3): 1896 - get paper here
  • Guibé, J. & Roux-Estève, R. 1972. Les types de Schlegel (Ophidiens) présents dans les collections du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Zoologische Mededelingen 47: 129-134 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed,M.S. 1997. Rediscovery of a forgotten snake in an unexpected place and remarks on a small herpetological collection from southeastern Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 71 (1-18): 63-81 - get paper here
  • Lema, Thales de 2002. Os repteis do Rio Grande do Sul. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre
  • Linares, Antônio Meira and Paula Cabral Eterovick 2013. Herpetofaunal Surveys Support Successful Reconciliation Ecology in Secondary and Human-Modified Habitats at the Inhotim Institute, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (2): 237-256. - get paper here
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386,
  • Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira; Brygida Alves, Carmem Pedro, Daniel Laranjeiras, Francis Caldas, Isabella Pedrosa, Jefter Rodrigues, Leandro Drummond, Lucas Cavalcanti, Milena Wachlevski, Paulo Nogueira-Costa, Rafaela França, Frederico França 2018. Herpetofauna in two habitat types (tabuleiros and Stational Semidecidual Forest) in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, northeastern Brazil Herpetology Notes 11: 455-474 - get paper here
  • Parnazio, Tatiane; Davor Vrcibradic 2018. Sexual dimorphism in two species of Sibynomorphus (Squamata, Dipsadidae) from Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 329-335 - get paper here
  • Pizzatto, Lígia; Maurício Cantor, Juliana Lima de Oliveira, Otavio A.V. Marques, Vinicius Capovilla, and Marcio Martins 2008. Reproductive Ecology of Dipsadine Snakes, With Emphasis on South American Species. Herpetologica 64 (2): 168-179 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • Santos, Marina Meireles dos; Fernanda Magalhães da Silva, Erika Hingst-Zaher, Fabio Andrade Machado, Hussam El Dine Zaher, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2017. Cranial adaptations for feeding on snails in species of Sibynomorphus (Dipsadidae: Dipsadinae) Zoology 120: 24–30 - get paper here
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  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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