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Dipsas variegata (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesVariegated Snail-eater 
SynonymLeptognathus variegatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 477
Leptognathus variegatus — STEJNEGER 1902: 192
Dipsas variegata - GOMES 1918: 525
Leptognathus robusta MÜLLER 1924: 155
Dipsas variegata — BEEBE 1946: 25
Dipsas variegata variegata — PETERS 1960: 132
Dipsas variegata — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 90
Dipsas variegata variegata — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 90
Dipsas variegata variegata — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Dipsas variegata variegata — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Dipsas variegata — KORNACKER 1999: 80
Dipsas variegata — KORNACKER & NATERA-MUMAW 2008
Dipsas variegata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 235


Dipsas neivai AMARAL 1926: 108
Dipsas neivai — PORTO & FERNANDES 1996
Dipsas neivai — CADLE 2003
Dipsas neivai — BERNILS et al. 2007
Dipsas neivai — GUTSCHE et al. 2007
Dipsas neivai — CICCHI et al. 2007
Dipsas neivai — WALLACH et al. 2014: 233 
DistributionVenezuela (Barinas [HR 34: 388], Aragua, Bolivar, Carabobo, Distrito Federal, Guarico, Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Lara, Portuguesa, Sucre, Vargas), French Guiana, Surinam, Brazil (Pará, Bahia), Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Guyana, Peru

Type locality: Surinam

neivai: Brazil (Minas Gerais, Bahia); Type locality: "Caratinga, Estado de Minas Geraes, Brasil" [= Caratinga, E Minas Gerais, SE Brazil, 19°47'S, 42°08'W, elevation 835 m]. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: MNHN 7299, RMNH 995
Holotype: ZSM632/1920(lost),female,“Ost-Ecuador”, collected by Feyer, 1910. Paratypes: ZSM 633/1920 (lost), 3 specimens, same data as holotype [Leptognathus robusta]
Holotype: IB 307, destroyed by fire in 2010 [neivai] 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Dipsas nicholsi, previously a subspecies or synonym of Dipsas variegata, has been resurrected by CADLE & MYERS (2003). Records from Colombia are unsubstantiated fide CADLE & MYERS (2003). Dipsas neivai has been resurrected from the synonymy of D. variegata by Bernils et al. 2007 and others. However, some authors, e.g. Harvey & Embert 2008, Cristiano Nogueira (pers. comm., May 11, 2015) consider D. neivai as a synonym of D. variegata.

Distribution: Records of Dipsas variegata from western Ecuador and southeastern Peru are based on misidentifications of Dipsas oreas, Sibynomorphus petersi, Dipsas peruana (fide CADLE & MYERS 2003), and possibly others.

Distribution: not corrected for removal of D. neivai.

NCBI TaxonID: 666079 [neivai]; RDB ID: 13469 
References
  • Almendariz, A. 1991. Anfibios y Reptiles [del Ecuador]. Rev. Politecnica. XVI (3): 89-162.
  • Amaral, A. do 1926. Novos gêneros e expécies de ophidios brasileiros. Arch. Mus. Nac. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 26: 1-27
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R. S., A. R. Giraudo, S. Carreira & S. Z. Cechin. 2007. Répteis das porções subtropical e temperada da Região Neotropical. Ciência & Ambiente 35: 101-136
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Cadle, J.E. & Myers, C.W. 2003. Systematics of Snakes Referred to Dipsas variegata in Panama and Western South America, with Revalidation of Two Species and Notes on Defensive Behaviors in the Dipsadini (Colubridae). American Museum Novitates 3409: 1-47 - get paper here
  • CALCAÑO, D. & C. L. BARRIO AMORÓS. 2003. Geographic Distribution. Serpentes: Dipsas variegata. Herpetological Review 34(4): 388 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cicchi, P.J.P., M.A. Sena, D.M. Peccinini-Seale, and M.R. Duarte. 2007. Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo,Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 17:227–240
  • Claessen, H. 2003. Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel V. Lacerta 61 (4): 123-133 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1933. A new snake from Panama. Copeia 1933: 193-194 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gomes, J.F., 1918. cearaContribuição para o conhecimento dos ophidios do Brazil. II. Ophidios do Museu Rocha (Ceará). Rev. Mus. Paulista 10: 505-527 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Gutsche, A. ; Kwet, A.; Kucharzewski, C.; Lingnau, R. & Günther, R. 2007. Wilhelm Ehrhardt and an evaluation of his amphibians and reptiles held in the Herpetological Collection of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 83 (1): 80–93
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. 2008. New and Poorly Known Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northern South America. Herpetologica 64 (4): 422-451 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. and Dirk Embert 2009. Review of Bolivian Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae), with Comments on Other South American Species. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 54-105 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Gilson Rivas Fuenmayor, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla, and José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid 2009. Systematics of the Enigmatic Dipsadine Snake Tropidodipsas perijanensis Alemán (Serpentes: Colubridae) and Review of Morphological Characters of Dipsadini. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 106-132 - get paper here
  • Kornacker, P. & Natera-Mumaw, M. 2008. Feldherpetologische Daten zu einigen Amphibien- und Reptilienarten im Wolkenwald des “Parque Nacional Henri Pittier”, Rancho Grande, Venezuela. Sauria 30 (3): 21-37 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • LOTZKAT S., NATERA-MUMAW M., A. HERTZ , J. SUNYER & D. MORA 2008. New state records of Dipsas variegata (Duméril, Bibron and Duméril 1854) (Serpentes: Colubridae) from northern Venezuela, with comments on natural history. Herpetotropicos 4 (1): 25-29 - get paper here
  • MacCulloch, R. D. & A. Lathrop 2004. A new species of Dipsas (Squamata: Colubridae) from Guyana. Revista de Biologia Tropical 52(1): 239-247 - get paper here
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Müller, L. 1923. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Batrachier der Zoologischen Sammlung des bayrischen Staates. Zool. Anz. 57 (7/8): 145-156 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Parker, H. W. 1926. A new snake from Trinidad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 18: 205-207
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (114): 224 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Pizzatto, Lígia; Maurício Cantor, Juliana Lima de Oliveira, Otavio A.V. Marques, Vinicius Capovilla, and Marcio Martins 2008. Reproductive Ecology of Dipsadine Snakes, With Emphasis on South American Species. Herpetologica 64 (2): 168-179 - get paper here
  • Porto,M. & Fernandes,R. 1996. Variation and natural history of the snail-eating snake Dipsas neivai (Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 269-271 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L. 1902. An annotated list of batrachians and reptiles collected in the vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela, with descriptions of two new species of snakes. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 24 [1901]: 179-192. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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