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Dispholidus typus (SMITH, 1828)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesDispholidus typus typus (SMITH 1829)
Dispholidus typus kivuensis LAURENT 1955
Dispholidus typus punctatus LAURENT 1955 
Common NamesE: Boomslang
G: Grüne Boomslang 
SynonymBucephalus typus SMITH 1828: 2
Bucephalus Bellii SMITH 1828: 2
Bucephalus gutturalis SMITH 1828: 2
Bucephalus Jardineii SMITH 1828: 2
Bucephalus viridis SMITH 1828: 2 (fide BRANCH 1981: 127)
Dendrophis colubrina SCHLEGEL 1837
Bucephalus capensis SMITH 1841: 20
Bucephalus Typus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 877
Bucephalus typus — BLANFORD 1870
Bucephalus typus — FISCHER 1884: 11
Bucephalus capensis — GÜNTHER 1888
Bucephalus typus — BOETTGER 1893: 130
Dispholidus typus viridis — BOULENGER 1905: 214
Dispholidus typus viridis — LAURENT 1956: 220
Dispholidus typus — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Dispholidus typus viridis — WITTE 1975
Dispholidus typus — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Dispholidus typus — RÖDEL & MAHSBERG 2000
Dispholidus typus — SCHMIDT 1923: 114
Dispholidus typus typus — AUERBACH 1987: 186
Dispholidus typus typus — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 32
Dispholidus typus — BROADLEY 1998
Dispholidus tipus — ARESTE & CEBRIAN 2003 (in error)
Disphlidus [sic] typus — BRANCH & BAUER 2005
Dispholidus typus — CHIRIO & INEICH 2006
Dispholidus viridis — EIMERMACHER 2012: 62
Dispholidus typus viridis — BROADLEY & BLAYLOCK 2013
Dispholidus typus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 239

Dispholidus typus kivuensis LAURENT 1955: 127
Dispholidus typus kivuensis — PITMAN 1974
Dispholidus kivuensis — EIMERMACHER 2012: 61

Dispholidus typus punctatus LAURENT 1955
Dispholidus punctatus — EIMERMACHER 2012: 61 
DistributionNamibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape etc.), Swaziland, Mozambique, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zaire, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the center), Congo (Brazzaville), Angola, Zambia, from Senegal to Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mali, Ivory Coast (RÖDEL et al. 1999), Gambia, Benin, Togo, Sierra Leone, Guinea (Conakry), Liberia, Ghana, Burkina Faso

kivuensis: Zambia (Abercorn), Rwanda, Kenya (Eldoret, Subukia), Uganda. Type locality: “Uvira, Lake Tanganyika, Kivu District, Ruanda-Urundi”

punctatus: Angola, Zaire, Zambia, Congo. Type locality: “Dundo, Angola”

viridis: Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Republic of South Africa

Type locality: “Old Latakoo, South Africa” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionegg-laying (oviparous). 
TypesHolotype: RSM (FitzSimons 1937: 263)
Holotype: MRAC 17505, Paratypes in ZFMK, IRSNB, CM and RMNH [kivuensis]
Holotype: MRAC 17395, Paratypes in ZFMK, IRSNB, CM, FMNH and RMNH [punctatus] 
CommentVenomous!

The famous American herpetologist Karl P. Schmidt (1890-19) died from the bite of a juvenile D. typus. While dying he took notes of the progression of the symptoms (RESETAR & VORIS 1997).

Behavior: very active and largely arboreal; dangerous, but fortunately reluctant to bite.

Diet: feeds mainly on chamaeleons and other tree lizards, nestling birds and eggs;

Distribution: Has been erronously reported from Gabon (fide PAUWELS & BRANCH 2003).

Type species: Bucephalus typus SMITH 1828: 2 is the type species of the genus Dispholidus DUVERNOY 1832. 
References
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