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Dixonius siamensis (BOULENGER, 1899)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Siamese Leaf-toed Gecko
G: Siam-Blattfingergecko 
SynonymPhyllodactylus siamensis BOULENGER 1899: 918
Phyllodactylus paviei MOCQUARD 1904 (fide SMITH 1935)
Phyllodactylus burmanicus ANNANDALE 1905 (fide SMITH 1935)
Phyllodactylus siamensis — SMITH 1935: 81
Phyllodactylus siamensis — TAYLOR 1963: 750
Phyllodactylus siamensis — WERMUTH 1965: 144
Phyllodactylus siamensis — KLUGE 1993
Dixonius siamensis — BAUER et al. 1997
Phyllodactylus siamensis — COX et al. 1998: 89
Dixonius siamensis — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 117
Dixonius siamensis — RÖSLER 2000: 77
Dixonius siamensis — NGUYEN et al. 2009 
DistributionThailand, Annam, Siam (Dung-Phya-Fai), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia ?

Type locality: Dung-Phya Fai Mountains, eastern Siam.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.24.40-41, 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Amongst others, the presence of precloacal pores, the tuberculate dorsum, the reduction in length of phalanx 2 of digit IV of the manus, and the proximally bifurcate hypoischium are characteristic features that serve to diagnose this genus from all other leaf-toed geckos (Bauer et al. 1997). 
CommentKaryotype: Dixonius siamensis consists of karyologically different populations. Specimens from E Thailand had 2n = 40 chromosomes while specimens from NW Thailand invariably had 2n = 42 chromosomes (Ota et al. 2001).

Type species: Phyllodactylus siamensis BOULENGER 1899 is the type species of the genus Dixonius Bauer, Good & Branch 1997.

Comparisons: Sumontha & Pauwels 2020: 174 (Table 2) present a comparison of all 10 species of Dixonius.

Distribution: Reports from India and Myanmar are in error (A. Bauer, pers. comm. 30 Aug 2011).

Type locality: Sumontha et al. (2017) believe that the interpretation of the type locality of Phyllodactylus paviei by Das (2004: 629) is erroneous. Das (2004) matched Mocquard’s ‘‘Vatana’’ with ‘‘Chaeng Wattana, ca. 13°45’N, 100°31’E: a northern suburb of Bangkok, across the highway from the airport, Phra Nakhon Province, Thailand’’. Mocquard’s description of P. paviei appeared in the lizard chapter of a book dedicated to the study of the scientific results of the expedition of the French explorer Auguste Pavie in Indochina in 1879–1895. In the introduction of the book, a map, however locates ‘‘Vatana’’ just southeast of ‘‘Srakeo’’, and it thus certainly corresponds to Watthana Nakhon (13°43'49.13"N, 102°20'5.76"E; elev. 72 m asl), Watthana Nakhon District, in the eastern province of Sa Kaeo which borders Cambodia. The type locality reported by Das (2004) was an incorrect interpretation and was further repeated by Ngo & Ziegler (2009). Watthana Nakhon lies about 198 airline km E of Chaeng Watthana, and is located southeast of the type localities of both D. melanostictus and D. siamensis. 
EtymologyNamed after its ocurrence in Thailand, formerly “Siam”.

The genus has been named after James R. Dixon (1 August 1928 – 10 January 2015) who spent most of his academic life at Texas A&M University. The species is named after its occurrence in Thailand, formerly “Siam”. 
  • Annandale, N. 1905. Notes on some Oriental geckos in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, with descriptions of new tons. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 15:26-32 - get paper here
  • Annandale, Nelson 1905. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. Suppl. II. Notes on the Oriental lizards in the Indian Museum, with a list of the species recorded from British India and Ceylon. J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (2) 1: 81-93 - get paper here
  • Bauer A M. Good D A. Branch W R. 1997. The taxonomy of the Southern African leaf-toed geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae), with a review of Old World "Phyllodactylus" and the description of five new genera. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 49 (14): 447-497. - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. 2013. Geckos - The Animal Answer Guide. Johns Hopkins University Press, 159 pp.
  • Bauer, A.M.; Sumontha, M.; Grossmann, W.; Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vogel, G. 2004. A new species of Dixonius (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand. Current Herpetology 23 (1): 17-26 - get paper here
  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1898. Third report on additions to the lizard collection in the Natural History Museum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1898: 912-923. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Crane, Matt S.; Colin T. Strine, Tyler K. Knierim, Taks in Artchawakom, and Pongthep Suwanwaree 2018. Herpetofaunal Species Abundance, Richness, and Diversity in a Dry Tropical Forest and Agricultural Matrix at the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Thailand. Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (3): 586–597 - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. A new species of Dixonius (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from southern Vietnam. Raffles Bull. Zool., 52(2): 629-634 - get paper here
  • Geissler, P., Hartmann, T., Ihlow, F., Neang T., Seng R., Wagner, P. & Bohme, W. 2019. Herpetofauna of the Phnom Kulen National Park, northern Cambodia—An annotated checklist. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2019 (1): 40–63 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Thy Neang, Thou Chav, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Jamie R. Oaks, Jeremy Holden, Jesse L. Grismer, Thomas R. Szutz and Timothy M. Youmans 2008. Additional amphibians and reptiles from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Northwestern Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, with comments on their taxonomy and the discovery of three new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56 (1): 161-175 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Grossmann, W. & Harbig, P. 1996. Phyllodactylus siamensis BOULENGER, 1898. Sauria 18 Suppl.: 357–360 - get paper here
  • HARTMANN, Timo; Flora IHLOW, Sarah EDWARDS, SOVATH Sothanin, Markus HANDSCHUH and Wolfgang BÖHME 2013. A Preliminary Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Kulen Promtep Wildlife Sanctuary in Northern Cambodia. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (1): 36–55 - get paper here
  • Janzen, Peter 2021. Amphibien und Reptilien Thailands – Teil 2: Der Nordwesten um Chiang Mai. Sauria 43 (3): 1-22
  • Mocquard, F. 1904. Lézards recueillis par M. A. Pavie en Indo-Chine. Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, 1879-95. Vol. 3. Paris, pp. 473-474
  • Nabhitabhata, J., T. Chan-ard and Y. Chuaynkern 2000. Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bankok. 152pp.
  • Ngo Tri Van, Thomas Ziegler 2009. A new species of Dixonius from Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Thuan Province, southern Vietnam (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 85 (1): 117-125 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • NGUYEN, T. H., LUU, V. Q., SITTHIVONG, S., NGO, H. T., NGUYEN, T. Q., LE, M. D., & ZIEGLER, T. 2021. A new species of Dixonius (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Vientiane Capital, Laos. Zootaxa 4965 (2): 351-362 - get paper here
  • NGUYEN, THUONG HUYEN; SALY SITTHIVONG, HANH THI NGO, VINH QUANG LUU, TRUONG QUANG NGUYEN, MINH DUC LE, & THOMAS ZIEGLER 2020. A new species of Dixonius (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of Khammouane Province, central Laos. Zootaxa 4759 (4): 530–542 - get paper here
  • Ota, H.; Hikida, T.; Nabhitabhata, J. & Panha, S. 2001. Cryptic taxonomic diversity in two broadly distributed lizards of Thailand (Mabuya macularia and Dixonius siamensis) as revealed by chromosomal investigations. Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ. 1 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • PAUWELS, OLIVIER S. G.; NONN PANITVONG, KIRATI KUNYA, MONTRI SUMONTHA 2021. A new sandstone-dwelling leaf-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Dixonius mekongensis) from the Thai-Lao border. Zootaxa 4969: 526–538 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • SUMONTHA, MONTRI; NIRUT CHOMNGAM, EAKARIT PHANAMPHON, PARINYA PAWANGKHANANT, CHUTINTON VIRIYAPANON, WANLADA THANAPRAYOTSAK & OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS 2017. A new limestone-dwelling leaf-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Dixonius) from Khao Sam Roi Yot massif, peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa 4247 (5): 556–568 - get paper here
  • SUMONTHA, MONTRI; OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS 2020. A new leaf-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Dixonius) from the city of Ranong, southwestern Thailand. Zootaxa 4852 (2): 166–176 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T., RAUHAUS, A., NGUYEN, T.Q. & NGUYEN, K.V. 2015. Südlichster Nachweis von Gekko badenii SZCZERBAK & NEKRASOVA, 1994, mit Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna der Hon-Me-Auffangstation in der Provinz Kien Giang, Südvietnam. Sauria 37 (2): 3 - 14 - get paper here
  • Zug, G.R. & Mulcahy, D.G. 2019. Identification guide Amphibians and reptiles of South Tanintharyi. Fauna & Flora International, 101 pp.
  • Zuklin, Tomas; Nathanael Maury, Saly Sitthivong, Thong Van Pham, Olivier Le Duc, Cedric Bordes, Benjamin Leprince, Charlotte Ducotterd, Lo Van Oanh, Phimphasone Vilay, Vinh Quang Luu, Luca Luiselli 2021. The «Empty Forest Syndrome» and the Herpetofaunal Communities in Laos (South-Eastern Asia). Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (6): 333-347 - get paper here
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