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Drymoluber dichrous (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesNorthern Woodland Racer 
SynonymHerpetodryas dichroa PETERS 1863: 284
Spilotes piceus COPE 1868: 105 (fide BOULENGER 1894)
Herpetodryas occipitalis GÜNTHER 1868: 420
Spilotes piceus COPE 1868: 105
Coluber dichrous — BOULENGER 1894: 30
Elaphe dichrous — GOMES 1918
Drymoluber dichrous — AMARAL 1930: 337
Drymoluber dichrous — DUELLMAN 1978: 241
Drymoluber dichrous — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Drymoluber dichrous — BAUER et al. 1995: 72
Drymoluber dichrous — KORNACKER 1999: 84
Drymoluber dichrous — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Drymoluber dichrous — WALLACH et al. 2014: 247 
DistributionColombia, Ecuador, E Peru, N Brazil (Alagoas [HR 31: 55], Minas Gerais [HR 33: 324], Pará, Espírito Santo, Bahia, S Ceará, Rio de Janeiro, Paraíba), Venezuela (TF Amazonas), Bolivia, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana; elevation 0-3500 m

Type locality: “Brasilien [und] angeblich aus Surinam” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 1661-2; Lectotype: ZMB 1661 (unclear sex, but probably male), designated by COSTA et al. 2013
Holotype: ANSP 3920; Peru, Napo or upper Marañon [piceus] 
CommentType species: Herpetodryas dichroa PETERS 1863: 284 is the type species of the genus Drymoluber PETERS 1863. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): Amaral (1930) stated that the dentary and hemipenial characters of Herpetodryas dichroa Peters, 1863 suggested that was a taxon closely related and intermediate between Drymobius and Coluber. The generic name Drymoluber (an amalgam of the words Drymobius and Coluber), was proposed to simultaneously distinguish and show the close relationship between Herpetodryas dichroa (now Drymoluber dichrous) and those genera. The name Drymoluber is masculine in gender [COSTA et al. 2013].

Peters (1863) did not comment on the reasons that led him to choose the name dichroa for the species he described. The words dichroa / dichrous comes from the ancient Greek, meaning “two-colored” or “two-skins”, and we suggest that the name may be an allusion to the contrasting color of adult specimens, which dorsum is dark colored, while the venter is light colored [COSTA et al. 2013] 
References
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  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
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  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
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  • CALDEIRA-COSTA, HENRIQUE; MÁRIO RIBEIRO MOURA, RENATO NEVES FEIO 2013. Taxonomic revision of Drymoluber Amaral, 1930 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 3716 (3): 349–394 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
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