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Enulius bifoveatus MCCRANIE & KÖHLER, 1999

IUCN Red List - Enulius bifoveatus - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Guanaja Long-tailed Snake 
SynonymEnulius bifoveatus MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 1999
Enulius bifoveatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 274 
DistributionHonduras (Islas de la Bahia)

Type locality: from between Savannah Bight and East End (16°29.19’N, 85°50.30’W), less than 10 m elevation, Isla de Guanaja, Islas de la Bahía, Honduras.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 78514 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Enulius bifoveatus differs from E. flavitorques in having two apical pits (one in E . flavitorques), strongly striated scale texture under high magnification (non-striated), a rostral length less than or equal to internasal suture length (rostral length greater than internasal suture length), a divided or partially divided pale nuchal collar (collar complete or absent, rarely divided), nuchal collar not or only narrowly involving first dorsal scale row posterior to parietals and temporals (collar involving first to third dorsal scale rows posterior to parietals and temporals when present, usually all of first), 181 ventrals in the female (184-216), and 120 subcaudals in the male (100-117). Enulius bifoveatus is distinguished from E . oligostichus in having 17 dorsal scale rows at midbody (15 in oligostichus ), two apical pits (one), seven supralabials (five), third and fourth supralabials entering orbit (second and third), 1 + 2 temporals (1 + 1), two postoculars (one), 168 ventrals in the male and 181 in the female (150-157 and 163, respectively), and 120 subcaudals in the male and 99+ in the female (82-88 and 83, respectively). [from MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 1999]. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin prefix “bi” (two, twice) and the adjectival form of the Latin noun fovea (pit), and refers to the two apical pits found in this species. 
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • Mccranie, J. R. & G. KÖHLER 1999. Two new species of colubrid snakes of the genus Enulius from Islas de la Bahia, Honduras. Carib. J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 14-22
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, L.D. & McCranie, J.R. 2003. The conservation status of the herpetofauna of Honduras. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 3 (1): 6-33 - get paper here
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