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Enulius flavitorques (COPE, 1868)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesEnulius flavitorques flavitorques (COPE 1868)
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881) 
Common NamesPacific Longtail Snake 
SynonymLiophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307
Enulius murinus COPE 1869: 80
Enulius murinus COPE 1871: 558
Leptocalamus torquatus GÜNTHER 1872 (fide COPE 1894: 205)
Enulius sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883 in DUMÉRIL et al.
Geagras longicaudatus — COPE 1885: 177
Geagras sumichrasti — COPE 1885: 177
Enulius flavitorques - DUNN 1938
Enulius unicolor - ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius sumichrasti - ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Enulius flavitorques - VILLA et al. 1988
Enulius flavitorques — LINER 1994
Enulius flavitorques — SAVAGE 2002
Enulius flavitorques — WALLACH et al. 2014: 274
Enulius flavitorques — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti BOCOURT 1883
Enulius flavitorques sumichrasti — LINER 2007

Enulius flavitorques unicolor (FISCHER 1881)
Geophis unicolor FISCHER 1881
Leptocalamus unicolor — COPE 1885: 178
Enulius unicolor — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 13
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — SMITH Syn. Mex.
Enulius flavitorques unicolor — LINER 2007 
DistributionS Mexico (Morelos, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Jalisco), Guatemala, Honduras [HR 34:265] (Solis et al. 2014), Belize ?, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama [Villa], Venezuela, Colombia

unicolor: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: Las Vigas b. Jalapa , Vera Cruz, Mexico 8000 ft; Holotypus UMB 434 (lost)

Type locality: Río Magdalena [Magdelena], New Grenada, Colombia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3695
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 3314-15; Nicaragua, Occidental, Chinandega [Enulius murinus] 
CommentType species: Liophis flavitorques COPE 1868: 307 is the type species of the genus Enulius COPE 1871.

Myers & McDowell (2014) suggested placing this genus in the synonymy of Enulius. The four species of Enulius (following Wallach et al. 2014) are the only New World dipsadines known to have the entire hemipenis covered with minute, uniform spinules. Placing Enuliophis, with its large hemipenial spines, in the synonymy of Enulius would eliminate that synapomorphy for Enulius (MCCRANIE 2015). 
References
  • Abarca, J. G., and F. Bolaños. 2017. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1868). Costa Rica, Puntarenas. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 468–469 - get paper here
  • Álvarez DEL TORO, M., & SMITH, H. M. 1956. Notulae herpetologicae Chiapasiae. I. Herpetologica 12: 3-17 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. Sixth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 305-313 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1871. Eighth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 553-559. [1870] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1894. Third addition to a knowledge of the batrachia and reptilia of Costa Rica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1894: 194-206 - get paper here
  • Cope, Edward D. 1869. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by J. A. McNiel in Nicaragua. First Annual report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science 1869: 80-82
  • Cruz-Sáenz, D., F. J. Muñoz-Nolasco, V. Mata-Silva, J. D. Johnson, E. García-Padilla, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Jalisco, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 23–118 - get paper here
  • Dunn,E.R. 1938. The snake genus Enulius Cope. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 89: 415-418 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
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  • Günther,A. 1872. Seventh account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 13-37 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hernández-Valadez, Eder, Erick Hernández-Estañol, Rosario Barragán-Vázquez, Pierre Charruau and Marco A. López-Luna. 2016. First record and distribution extension of Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869) (Squamata: Colubridae) in Tabasco, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 512-513 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Juárez-Peña, Carlos, Ángel Sosa Bartuano and Silvia Sigüenza-Mejia. 2016. New herpetofaunal records for Parque Nacional Montecristo, El Salvador. El Salvador, Santa Ana. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1107–1113 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Manzanilla P., J.; Mijares-Urrutia, A.; Rivero, R. & Natera, M. 1999. Primer Registro de Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1871) (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Carib. J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 150-151
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
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  • Mccranie, J. R. & G. KÖHLER 1999. Two new species of colubrid snakes of the genus Enulius from Islas de la Bahia, Honduras. Carib. J. Sci. 35 (1-2): 14-22
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R., Leonardo Valdés Orellana and Alexander Gutsche. 2013. New departmental records for amphibians and reptiles in Honduras. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 288-289
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  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Myers, Charles W. and Samuel B. McDowell 2014. New Taxa and Cryptic Species of Neotropical Snakes (Xenodontinae), with Commentary on Hemipenes as Generic and Specific Characters. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 385 (1) : 1-112. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peterson, A.T. et al. 2004. A preliminary biological survey of Cerro Piedra Larga, Oaxaca, Mexico: Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 75(2): 439-466
  • Porras, L.W. 2006. Die Schlangen des costa-ricanischen Trockenwaldes. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 32-37 - get paper here
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  • Ramírez-Jiménez, F., C. Mayoral-Halla, E. García-Padilla, V. Mata-Silva, and A. Ramírez-Bautista. 2017. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1868). Mexico, Oaxaca. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 675 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Solís, José M.; Mario R. Espinal, and Carlos M. O’Reilly 2014. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869). Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 292 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, A., and B. Mora. 2017. Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1869). Feeding behavior. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 428–431 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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