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Enyalioides heterolepis (BOCOURT, 1874)

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Higher TaxaHoplocercidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Bocourt's Dwarf Iguana
S: Iguana enana 
SynonymEnyalus heterolepis BOCOURT 1874: 1
Enyalius heterolepis — GÜNTHER 1885: 56
Enyalioides heterolepis - BOULENGER 1885: 114
Enyalioides insulae BARBOUR 1905: 100
Enyalioides Mocquardi DESPAX 1911
Enyalioides heterolepis - PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 114
Enyalioides heterolepis — KÖHLER 2000: 81
Enyalioides heterolepis — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011 
DistributionNW Ecuador, Colombia (Valle del Cauca, Chocó), Panama (Coclé etc.)

Type locality: Veragua, Panama. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MHNP 4067
Lectotype: MHNP 4067 (Guibe, 1954) 
CommentSynonymy that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Type species: Enyalus heterolepis BOCOURT 1874 is the type species of the genus Enyalioides BOULENGER 1885.

Key: TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2015: 126 provide a key to all species of the Hoplocercinae, including the species of Enyalioides.

Diagnosis (genus): Enyalioides can be distinguished from Hoplocercus by having a laterally compressed or rounded (rather than depressed) tail that is longer than the body (i.e., tail length > SVL). Enyalioides also differs from Hop- locercus and Morunasaurus in having pointed, conical scales on dorsal surface of head and gular region; raised scales posterior to the superciliaries; keeled dorsal scales; a continuous vertebral crest formed by large, trihedral or conical scales (except E. palpebralis, in which most specimens have a nuchal gap in the vertebral crest); and one or more enlarged pretympanic scales (except E. heterolepis). Enyalioides can be further distinguished from Morunasaurus by having a parietal eye [from TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011]. ETHERIDGE 1969 presents a comparison of Enyalius and Enyalioides.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other species of Enyalioides by having scattered, projecting, tet- rahedral large scales on dorsum, flanks, and hind limbs, which are conspicuous in juveniles and adults of both sexes. The only other species of Enyalioides with scattered, projecting dorsal scales is E. cofanorum, which differs from E. heterolepis in lacking projecting scales on the hind limbs [from TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011]. 
References
  • Barbour, T. in: Bangs, Outram; Brown, Wilmont W.; Thayer, John E.; Barbour, Thomas 1905. The Vertebrata of Gorgona Island, Colombia. 1 Introduction. Mammalia. 2. Physical aspect and climate; Fauna. 3 Aves. 4 Reptilia; Amphibia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46 (5): 87-102 - get paper here
  • Bocourt,M.F. 1874. Deux notes sur quelques sauriens de l'Amérique tropicale. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris (5) 19 (4): 1-5 [1873] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1880. Reptiles et Batraciens recueillis par M. Emile de Ville dans les Andes de l'équateur. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 5: 41-48
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • CASTRO-HERRERA, FERNANDO; ANYELET VALENCIA-AGUILAR, DIEGO VILLAQUIRAN-Martínez 2012. Diversidad de Anfibios y Reptiles del Parque<br />Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, 112 pp.
  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
  • Despax, R. 1911. Note préliminaire relative aux lézards rapportés de l’Équateur par M. le Dr Rivet. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris 17: 9-12 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1969. A review of the Iguanid lizard genus Enyalius. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 18 (8): 233-260 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Lips,K. 1999. Geographic distribution. Enyalioides heterolepis. Herpetological Review 30: 52 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, Kirsten E. 1998. Geographic distribution. Enyalioides heterolepis. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 174 - get paper here
  • Ríos, E.E.; C.F. Hurtado P., J.T. Rengifo M., and F. Castro Herrera. 2011. LAGARTOS EN COMUNIDADES NATURALES DE DOS LOCALIDADES EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHOCÓ DE COLOMBIA. Herpetotropicos 5(2): 85-92
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Venegas PJ, de Queiroz K 2015. Three new species of woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from northwestern South America. ZooKeys 494: 107-132. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; RICHARD ETHERIDGE & KEVIN DE QUEIROZ 2011. A systematic revision of Neotropical lizards in the clade Hoplocercinae (Squamata: Iguania). Zootaxa 2752: 1–44 - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Venegas PJ, Torres-Carvajal O, Duran V, de Queiroz K 2013. Two sympatric new species of woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from Cordillera Azul National Park in northeastern Peru. ZooKeys 277: 69–90. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.277.3594 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J. and Richard E. Etheridge 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Hoplocercid lizards: coding and combining meristic, morphometric, and polymorphic data using step matrices. Herpetologica 59 (3): 375-398 - get paper here
 
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