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Epacrophis reticulatus (BOULENGER, 1906)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlopinae, Epacrophini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesReticulate Blind Snake 
SynonymGlauconia reticulata BOULENGER 1906: 441
Leptotyphlops reticulata - PARKER 1949: 19
Leptotyphlops reticulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 40
Leptotyphlops reticulatus — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 17
Epacrophis reticulatus — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Epacrophis reticulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 275 
DistributionNW Somalia (highlands, elevation 900-1250 m).

Type locality: Wagga, Goolis Mountains, near Berbera, altitute 3000 - 4000 ft., Somalia. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.16.53. 
CommentDiagnosis: This species is distinguished from Leptotyphlops boulengeri by its high middorsal and subcaudal counts and from L. drewesi by its broad rostral shield and reticulate colour pattern. Skull robust, with fused parietal bones.

The reticulatus species group is characterised by the presence of a discrete frontal shield, a rounded snout in lateral view, 10 midtail scale rows, a moderate anterior supralabial, a stout apical spine on the tail (Wallach, 199), a moderate
posterior supralabial and a crescentic cloacal shield. The robust skull has fused parietal bones in Leptotyphlops reticulatus and L. boulengeri. This group was initially known as the L. boulengeri species group.

Type species: Glauconia reticulata BOULENGER 190 is the type species of the genus Epacrophis Hedges, Adalsteinsson, & Branch 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): Species of Epacrophis and Epacrophini have 14 midbody scale rows, 10 midtail scale rows, 180– 248 middorsal scale rows, 18–32 subcaudals, two supralabials, a moderate-sized anterior supralabial, 143–201 mm maximum adult total length, a body shape of 30–57 (total length/width), a relative tail length of 7.9–10.9 %, a tail shape of 3.2–5.7, no striped pattern, and usually a brown dorsum and white venter (Table 2). Epacrophini can be distinguished from the two other tribes in the subfamily Leptotyphlopinae by the presence of a moderate-sized anterior supralabial (versus absent or small in other species of Leptotyphlopinae, except L. howelli) and a stout apical spine on the tip of the tail (Broadley & Wallach 2007; Wallach 199). No species were included in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. [from ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009]. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name is masculine and derived from the Greek adjective epakros (pointed at the end) and Greek noun ophis (snake), in allusion to the distinctive thorny spine at the tip of the tail in species of this genus. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1906. Description of a new snake of the genus Glauconia from Somaliland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 18: 441. - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A revision of the genus Leptotyphlops in northeastern Africa and southwestern Arabia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 1408: 1–78 - get paper here
  • Hahn D. E. & V. WALLACH, 1998. Comments on the systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with description of a new species. Hamadryad 23: 50-62 - get paper here
  • Lanza, B. 1990. Amphibians and reptiles of the Somali Democratic Republic: check list and biogeography. Biogeographia, 14: 407-465 [1988]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Parker,H.W. 1949. The snakes of Somaliland and the Sokotra islands. Zoologische Verhandelingen 6: 1-115 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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