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Epictia martinezi WALLACH, 2016

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymEpictia martinezi WALLACH 2016
Glauconia albifrons — BOULENGER 1893: 63 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — AMARAL 1930: 138 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — PETERS et al. 1970: 170 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — HAHN 1980: 15–16 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops — WILSON & HAHN 1973: 120–123 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & MEYER 1982: 23 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 31–32 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2001b: 12, fig. 11b (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2003a: 171 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2003b: 279 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2008: 183–184 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON et al. 2001 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002: 92 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & MCCRANIE2004: 21 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — CASTAÑEDA & MARINEROS 2006: 10 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — TOWNSEND & WILSON, 2010a: 478
Leptotyphlops goudotii — TOWNSEND & WILSON 2010b: 693 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & TOWNSEND 2006: 96
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & TOWNSEND 2010: 811 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — WILSON 1983: 125 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — WILSON & MCCRANIE 1994: 148 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — WILSON & MCCRANIE 1998: 18 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — MARINEROS 2000: 139 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotti (sic) — WILSON & MEYER 1985: 20–21, fig. 25 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti ater — TIPTON 2005: 24 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudutii (sic) — ALEMÁN-MEJÍJA 2008: 101 (part)
Epictia ater — MCCRANIE 2009: 16
Epictia ater — MCCRANIE 2015: 378 (part)
Epictia ater — WALLACH et al. 2014: 275 (part)
Epictia ater — WILSON & JOHNSON 2016: 38
Epictia goudotii — WILSON & JOHNSON 2010: 101 (part)
Epictia phenops — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 4, fig. 2 (part) 
DistributionW Honduras (near Antigua)

Type locality: between Río Lempa and Antigua, Departamento de Ocotepeque, Honduras, ca. 14°24.3’ N, 89°12.2’ W, elevation 730 m Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 283740 (field no. JRMC 20118), a 153 mm (LOA) male collected by James R. McCranie on 18 June 2012.
Paratypes (5): HONDURAS: OCOTEPEQUE: Río Lempa near Antigua, collected by James R. McCranie, 17 June 2012, FMNH 283735 (field no. JRMC 20107), 283736 (field no. JRM 20108), 283737 (field no. JRMC 20114); between Río Lempa and Antigua, collected by James R. McCranie, 18 June 2012, FMNH 283738–39 (field no. JRMC 20116–17). 
CommentSynonymy: after Wallach 2016: 256. See this paper also for references. Epictia martinezi represents the new species that was revealed by the molecular phylogeny of McCranie and Hedges (2016), referred to as E. phenops-1 and E. phenops-2 (based on mitochondrial genes from FMNH 283737 and 283735, respectively, described above) in their fig. 2.

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length = 71–169 (x– = 143.8) mm; (4) total middorsals = 248–260 (x– = 256.3); (5) subcaudals = 16–23 (x– = 19.8); (6) relative body pro- portion = 39.4–50.4 (x– = 46.0); (7) relative tail length = 5.5%–8.8% (x– = 7.4%); (8) relative tail width = 3.3–5.2 (x– = 4.2); (9) relative rostral width = 0.37–0.51 (x– = 0.41); (10) relative eye size = 0.47–0.54 (x– = 0.50); (10) rostral parallel or barely tapering with a rounded or truncated apex extending to mid-eye level; (11) supralabials 2, moder- ate anterior supralabial reaching or nearly reaching mid-eye level; (12) frontal subhexagonal, 11⁄4–11⁄2 times broader than deep; (13) supraoculars large and pentagonal with posterior borders oblique to posterior borders of supranasal, 21⁄2 times as wide as long; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 4th; (15) parietals deeper than occipitals, oriented obliquely; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield semilunate shape; (18) head brown, with a moderateyellow spot covering most or all of the rostral; (19) dorsum with 3 dark brown middorsal stripes formed from diamond-shaped spots separated by 4 broad zigzag yellow lines and a pair of broader lateral dark brown stripes separated by a mod- erate yellow zigzag stripe (= 7 dark stripes); (20) venter pale brown, with each scale heavily stippled in brown with a narrow pale outline; (21) midbody stripe formula (3 + 2/2 + 0) and middorsal pattern (3D + 4L); (22) tail with a larger pale terminal spot ventrally, covering 5.5–9 (x– = 7.5) subcaudals, than dorsally, covering 1.5–3.5 (x– = 2.4) subcaudals, the ventral/dorsal ratio equals 3.1; and (23) apical spine a tiny spike.

Habitat: The type locality of Epictia martinezi occurs in the Southern Cordillera of the Serranía region, specifically the Cordillera de Merendón, an area of subhumid valleys (McCranie, 2011) occupied by moist lower montane forest and pine-oak forest (Wilson and Meyer, 1985).

Comparisons: see Wallach 2016: 258 for detailed comparisons. 
Etymology“This species in named in honor of Joe Martinez, Curatorial Assistant II, Department of Herpetology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ), and commemorates his 20 years of service to the museum. Joe is a great friend, an all-around herper, and my avid sports buddy”. 
References
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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