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Epictia pauldwyeri WALLACH, 2016

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymEpictia pauldwyeri WALLACH 2016
Stenostoma albifrons — COPE 1875: 44
Stenostoma albifrons — COPE 1887: 63
Leptotyphlops goudotii — SWANSON 1945: 213 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — DUNN 1949: 47 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — AUTH 1994: 19
Leptotyphlops goudotii — HEDGES 1996: 111, 115 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — PÉREZ-SANTOS 1999: 295 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — YOUNG et al. 1999: 37
Leptotyphlops goudotii — IUCN 1999: 128
Leptotyphlops goudotii — IBÁÑEZ et al. 2001: 170
Leptotyphlops goudotii — GONZÁLEZ-MUÑOZ 2008: 2
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2008: 183, map (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — JARAMILLO et al., 2010: 623
Leptotyphlops goudoti — H. SMITH 1958: 223
Leptotyphlops goudoti — PÉREZ-SANTOS et al., 1993: 115 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — PETERS et al. 1970
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — PETERS et al. 1986: 169 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — PÉREZ-SANTOS 1999: 296, map 44 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudottii goudottii (sic) — PÉREZ-SANTOS et al., 1993: 115 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudottii goudottii (sic) — PÉREZ-SANTOS 1999: 295–296 (part)Leptotyphlops goudotti (sic) — NEAL 2007: 106
Epictia goudotii — JOHNSON et al. 2015: 92
Epictia goudotii — RAY & RUBACK 2015: 171, fig. 4
Epictia goudotii — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 13, fig. 4. 
DistributionPanama (Pacific coast of C Panama: Colon, Panamá, Panamá Oeste), elevation 0–250 m

Type locality: Curundú, Ciudad de Panama, Canal Zone, Provincia de Panamá, Panama, ca. 8°59'08"N, 79°32'26"W, elevation 35 m.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 130672, a 112 mm (LOA) female collected by N. Gale on 20 March 1961.
Paratypes (10): PANAMA: CANAL ZONE: Ancon, 500 m, collected by Charles W. Myers in 1959, KU 116897 (field no. CWM 9181); Curundú, collected by Charles W. Myers in April 1966, KU 116896 (field no. CWM 6438); Gamboa, collected by N. Gale on 16 February 1961, MVZ 78739; PANAMÁ: Panama city, collected 1977, UMMZ 167679; Tocúmen, collected by Charles W. Myers in April 1968, KU 125032 (field no. CWM 9395); Paso Blanco, between Pacora and Chepo, collected by Paul L. Swanson between August, 1942, and July, 1944, ANSP 25086; PANAMÁ OESTE: Bahía Serena, collected by Roberto Ibáñez on 21 Feb. 2002, CHP H-5379; Nueva Gorgona, collected by Charles W. Myers on 26 May 1963, KU 116898 (field no. CWM 7051); probably Panama, collected by Charles B. Adams on 23 August 1920, USNM 63110–11. 
CommentSynonymy: after Wallach 2016: 256. See this paper also for references.

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length = 67–129 (x– = 105.2) mm; (4) total middorsals = 202–226 (x– = 211.8); (5) subcaudals = 10–14 (x– = 12.7); (6) relative body proportion = 43–49 (x– = 45.7); (7) relative tail length = 3.6%–6.1% (x– = 4.8%); (8) relative tail width = 1.8–3.1 (x– = 2.5); (9) relative rostral width = 0.42–0.53 (x– = 0.47); (10) relative eye size = 0.39–0.48 (x– = 0.43); (10) rostral subtriangular with rounded apex extending to mid-eye level; (11) supralabials 2, short to moderate anterior supralabial reaching or nearly reaching mid-eye level; (12) frontal hexagonal, 11⁄2 times broader than deep; (13) supraoculars large and rectangular with posterior borders parallel to posterior borders of supranasal, 11⁄2 times as wide as long; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 5th; (15) parietals deeper than occipitals, oriented transversely; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield subtriangular in shape; (18) head brown, with a yellow spot covering the entire rostral; (19) dorsum with 7 brown stripes formed from diamond-shaped spots bordered by narrow zigzag yellow lines (= 7 dark stripes); (20) venter uniform pale brown, scales often outlined in yellow; (21) midbody stripe formula (7 + 0) and middorsal pattern (3); (22) tail with a larger pale terminal spot dorsally, covering 2–3.5 (x– = 2.3) dorsocaudals, than ventrally, covering 1–2.5 (x– = 1.8) subcaudals (ventral/dorsal ratio 0.8); and (23) apical spine a horizontally-compressed spike.

Comparisons: see Wallach 2016: 267 for detailed comparisons.

Habitat: wet tropical lowland rainforest (Wallach 2016).

Distribution: Myers and Rand (1969) or Rand and Myers (1990) did not discover Epictia goudotii on Isla Barro Colorado, Panama, because the species occurs on both sides of the Panama Canal, but only on the Pacific versant. Swanson (1945) first recorded Leptotyphlops goudotii from Panama, and Smith (1958) referred to the species as L. phenops (“albifrons”). The records of Pérez-Santos et al. (1993) were based on specimens from the provinces of Colón and Panama, in Panama (Pérez-Santos, 1999). Young et al. (1999) listed L. goudotii from Panama.
Ray and Ruback (2015) listed only one known specimen of E. goudotii from Panama in their fig. 4, yet this species was listed in collections by ANSP (25086), FMNH (130672), KU (116896–98, 125032), MVZ (78739), STRI (CHP H-5379) and USNM (63110–11), all of which have proven to be the new species E. pauldwyeri. The only known Panamanian voucher specimen listed as E. goudotii I was unable to examine or for which no data are available is UAZ 27124 from 10 km NW Balboa, Canal Zone, which most likely represents E. pauldwyeri. If this specimen were to be confirmed as E. goudotii, it would be the only record of this species from Panama (Wallach 2016: 271). 
Etymology“This species is named in honor of Paul Dwyer, Mailroom Specialist, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ), and commemorates his 42 years of service to the museum. Without Paul’s daily endeavors in receiving, sorting, and delivering mail, posting letters and packages, sending and receiving loans, and mailing out Breviora and the Bulletins, research and education in the MCZ would come to a standstill.” 
References
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
 
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